Th3_Analysis of postharvest losses in rice: case study of Benin

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3rd Africa Rice Congress …

3rd Africa Rice Congress
Theme 3: Rice processing and marketing
Mini symposium: constraints to and opportunities for rice processing and marketing
Author: Midingoyi

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  • 1. Analysis of postharvest losses in rice: case study of Benin Soul-kifouly G.Midingoyi 3rd Africa Rice Congress 21-24 October 2013, Yaoundé, Cameroon
  • 2. Outline • • • • • Introduction Objectives Methodology Results Conclusion
  • 3. Introduction • Rice: staple food and key role in food security • Sharp increase in consumption during these last decades due to shifting in consumer preference in favor of rice, urbanization, demographic • Import to meet this continuously increasing demand partially met by the local production at just 30%
  • 4. Introduction • Ensuring sustainability of food security and rice self-sufficiency necessitates import substitution • Until recently, food security conceived as on-farm yield increasing with little attention to the afterproduction • Additional often-forgotten factor that still exacerbates food insecurity: postharvest losses.
  • 5. Introduction • Post-harvest losses: preventable decrease of harvest recorded during a series of postharvest operations before reaching the consumers • potential source of higher profit and reduction of the extent of food insecurity.
  • 6. Objective Assess the postharvest losses that occur from harvesting to milling and provided information on socioeconomic and postharvest operation that affect the extent of such losses.
  • 7. Specific objectives • estimate the extent of postharvest losses in rice at different stages • identify the stages with the highest losses • identify the factors responsible for postharvest losses in rice and that need to be tackled
  • 8. Sampling – Stratified and random sample at both village and household levels and in a way to represent different regions (Northwest, Northeast, Centre and South regions) – 29 villages and 171 households covering all the regions Northeast Northwest Centre South
  • 9. Methodology: loss estimation
  • 10. Methodology: tobit model
  • 11. Methodology: Model estimation
  • 12. Methodology: Marginal effects estimation
  • 13. Results: Extent of losses Stages Northwest Northeast Centre South All regions 1.09 5.88 4.23 Before harvesting (% of total production) On-field 2.58 5.43 From haresting to milling (% of total production) Harvesting 1.00 3.69 0.45 2.04 1.85 Straw-gathering Straw-collecting 0.48 0.59 3.11 2.85 0.00 0.12 0.10 1.23 1.47 1.46 Straw-drying 0.43 2.70 0.11 0.53 0.98 Threshing 0.63 2.66 0.57 3.78 2.15 Winnowing 0.36 3.32 0.75 3.35 1.70 Paddy-Drying 0.12 0.71 0.20 2.82 1.23 Packaging 0.34 2.87 0.25 0.18 1.43 Paddy transport 0.09 5.85 2.13 3.79 Paddy storage 0.29 2.61 1.21 1.59 1.43 Milling 2.78 1.50 0.62 8.39 3.19 Total 7.11 31.87 4.28 26.14 20.69
  • 14. Results: Stages with higher loss Récolte Assemblage 15.45% 8.95% Ramassage 7.13% 6.90% 7.05% Séchage 4.71% 18.31% 10.41% 6.93% 5.97% 8.20% Battage Vannage Séchage2 Conditionnement Transport du paddy Stockage paddy Décortiquage
  • 15. Results: loss determinants Dependant variable (loss pourcentage) Gender (man=1, women=0) Age of the household head Number of year of residence harvesting at 100% maturity Packaging (in bag with conservation product=1, otherwise=0) Paddy varieties separation dummy Drying method (on cemented area=1 otherwise=0) Threshing method (stick directly on paddy straw) Threshing method (applying stick on bags) All regions -0,188 * (0,112) -0,004 ** (0,002) 0,003 * (0,002) 0,058 * (0,032) -0,06 (0,105) -0,05 (0,032) North-East region -0,004 (0,007) 0,002 (0,006) -0,028 (0,062) Centre Region -0,289 (0,201) -0,006 (0,004) 0,005 (0,004) 0,023 (0,013) South region -0,006 (0,006) 0,005 (0,004) 0,055 (0,089) -0,026 (0,015) -0,132 ** (0,056) 0,033 (0,094) ** -0,1 (0,043) -0,045 (0,072) -0,011 (0,012) -0,158 (0,152) 0,058 (0,038) 0,217 *** (0,069) 0,197 *** (0,055) 0,475 *** (0,099) -0,017 (0,012) -0,113 (0,163)
  • 16. Results: loss determinants (Contd) Dependant variable (loss pourcentage) Gender (man=1, women=0) Winnowing with local winnower Winnowing with bowl Storage at home as grain Rice variety grown (Nerica=1 otherwise=0) Center region Intercept Sigma LR chi2 Log likelihood All regions -0,188 * (0,069) -0,136 ** (0,057) -0,085 * (0,049) -0,098 *** (0,037) -0,071 * (0,041) -0,132 *** (0,039) 0,565 *** (0,148) 0,134 (0,011) 40,50 *** 39,13 North-East region Centre Region South region -0,289 (0,099) -0,102 (0,119) -0,083 (0,064) -0,074 (0,086) -0,04 (0,217) -0,061 (0,183) -0,178 * (0,091) -0,028 * (0,015) 0,401 * (0,191) 0,109 (0,012) 26,84 *** 17,56 0,011 (0,016) 0,035 * (0,017) -0,008 (0,012) -0,075 (0,077) 0,317 (0,196) 0,016 (0,002) 10,62 45,62 0,448 * (0,245) 0,161 0,021 12,49 8,68
  • 17. Results: Marginal effects Factors Gender (man=1, women=0) Age of the household head Number of year of residence harvesting at 100% maturity Packaging (in bag with conservation product=1, otherwise=0) Paddy varieties separation dummy Drying method (on cemented area=1 otherwise=0) Threshing method (stick directly on paddy straw) Thresing method (applying steak on bags) Winnowing with local winnower Winnowing with bowl Storage at home as grain Rice variety grown (Nerica=1 otherwise=0) Center region For unconditional dependant variable -0.203 *** (0.047) -0.008 ** (0.004) 0.006 * (0.003) 0.124 * (0.686) -0.149 (0.289) -0.102 (0.063) -0.226 ** (0.102) 0.118 (0.074) 0.225 *** (0.040) -0.334 (0.151) -0.185 (0.110) -0.180 (0.060) -0.169 (0.108) -0.327 (0.106) ** ** *** *** For uncensored conditional dependent variable -0.143 (0.101) -0.002 ** (0.001) 0.002 * (0.000) 0.003 * (0.018) -0.031 (0.049) -0.030 (0.019) -0.055 ** (0.023) 0.034 (0.023) 0.166 *** (0.064) -0.070 (0.026) -0.048 (0.027) -0.061 (0.025) -0.038 (0.020) -0.066 (0.017) *** ** ** * ***
  • 18. Conclusion • 20% of the total paddy productions are lost at national level during each agricultural campaign • highest loss extents with transport, milling and threshing • Socioeconomic features, practices and technological issues influenced the magnitude of postharvest
  • 19. Suggestions • building the farmer’s capacity on knowledge of best practices and adequate technologies for handling and processing during and after harvest. • suitable machines or labor-saving technologies are needed but with capacity building on their appropriate and efficient utilization