Th2_Locally Adapted Parasitic Weed Management Strategies Based on Soil Fertility Amendments
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Th2_Locally Adapted Parasitic Weed Management Strategies Based on Soil Fertility Amendments

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3rd Africa Rice Congress

3rd Africa Rice Congress
Theme 2: Intensification and diversification
Mini symposium: Rice pests: evidence of effects and management
Author: Kayeke

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Th2_Locally Adapted Parasitic Weed Management Strategies Based on Soil Fertility Amendments Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Locally Adapted Parasitic Weed Management Strategies Based on Soil Fertility Amendments BY J. Kayeke, J. Rodenburg, L. Bastiaans, M.K. Menza, E.A. Onyuka, M. Cissoko, E.D. Daniel, D.W. Makokha and A. van Ast
  • 2. Introduction: The root parasitic weeds Striga asiatica(L.) Kuntze and Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Hochst.) Benth are among the important biotic constraints hindering rice production under rainfed systems. Loss in yield is a result of competition and extraction of water, nutrient and metabolites caused by the parasite  Improving soil fertility Inorganic frtilizers (NPK or DAP and urea) Application of cattle manure  Organic fertilizer rice husks. Table 1. Nutrient status of the applied cattle manure and rice husks. pH N P K OM Ca Mg S Mn Fe % % % % % % % ppm ppm ppm C manure 8.65 1.68 0.25 2.29 24.9 0.62 0.41 0.23 1450 8130 Rice husks 5.17 2.15 1.29 1.34 40.2 0.17 0.62 0.11 306 1150
  • 3. Methodology: Two experiments for Striga asiatica(in uplands) and Rhamphicarpa fistulosa(in lowlands) Altitude: Striga - 527 m a.s.l. Rhamphicarpa - 525 m a.s.l. (900 m apart) Soils: Striga – loamy sand (sand:clay: silt -66:11: 25) Rhamphicarpa-field loamy-clay sand (sand:clay: silt 57:21:22) soil. The experiment had 7 soil fertility treatments and 2 weeding regimes in a split-plot Design with 5 replications. The treatments were randomized for the first season, in the second season each treatment was repeated at the same plot as in year 1. Plot size was 3.0 × 4.0 m, with 15 crop rows of 20 hills each following a spacing of 20 × 20 cm. Each of the Rhamphicarpa plots were bunded to avoid mixture of soil fertility treatments due to early floods. Farmers choose a good treatment for practice Striga Soil Fertility Trial (SSFT) Rhamphicarpa Soil Fertility Trial (RSFT)
  • 4. Soil fertility treatments 1. No fertilizer (negative control) 2. DAP (18:46:0 - N:P2O5:K2O) was applied at a rate of 125 kgha-1by broadcasting at planting. Urea (46% N) was broadcasted at a rate of125 kgha-1 at 70 DAS. 3. NPK fertilizer (20:10:10 – N:P:K) was applied at a rate of 200 kg ha1by broadcasting in 2 splits 58% was applied at 21 DAS and 42% at 70 DAS. 4. Cattle manure at a rate of 10 tha-1 by mixing with the top 20 cm soil at 3 days before sowing. 5. Fine rice husks applied at a rate of 10 tha-1by thorough mixing with the top 20 cm soil at 3 days before sowing 6. Combination of cattle manure and half the locally recommended rate of DAP plus urea. 7. Combination of rice husks and half the recommended rate of DAP plus urea.
  • 5. Striga infestation Striga Dry weight 80 35 70 30 60 50 40 Series1 30 Weight in gm Striga mumber per sq m 25 20 15 Series1 Series2 Series2 20 10 10 5 0 0 Soil fertuility Treatments Soil fertility Treatments
  • 6. Weed Bionass Rice grain yield 200 3000 180 2500 160 120 100 80 Series1 Series2 60 40 Rice yield in Kg/ha weed weight in gm 140 2000 1500 Series1 1000 Series2 500 20 0 0 Soil fertility Treatments Sol fertility treatments
  • 7. Maximum Rhamphicarpa numbers(m-2) and Rhamphicarpa dry weights at harvest (g m-2) observed during season 1 (2012) and season 2 (2013) Rhamphicarpa numbers Rhamphicarpa dry weights Soil fertility treatments 2012 2012 No-fertilizer 84 cd 11 b 112 c 42 b DAP+Urea 164 bc 6 b 212 b 10 c NPK 50 d 6 b 95 c 28 bc Manure (CM) 179 b 17 a 254 ab 70 a Rice husks (RH) 158 bc 10 b 225 ab 29 bc CM-DAP+Urea 267 a 10 b 297 a 21 bc RH-DAP+Urea 216 ab 10 b 257 ab 23 bc P <0.001 2013 0.016 <0.001 2013 0.005
  • 8. Weed biomass dry weight at harvest (g m-2) in Rice grain yield (kg ha-1)from the the Rhamphicarpa experiment during season 1 Rhamphicarpa experiment during season 1 (2012) and season 2 (2013) (2012) and season 2 (2013) Weed biomass DW Soil fertility 2012 Rice yield 2013 Soil fertility treatments 2012 2013 treatments No-fertilizer 30.4 a 49.0* ab No-fertilizer 676.7 bc 1485.5 d DAP+Urea 13.2 b 26.8 b DAP+Urea 906.8 b 5260.4 a NPK 42.4 a 100.9 a NPK 1359.2 a 2362.9 cd Manure (CM) 15.3 b 88.1 a Manure (CM) 382.17 c 2964.3 c Rice husks (RH) 13.6 b 29.1 b Rice husks (RH) 1773.0 a 4110.3 b CM-DAP+Urea 17.9 b 24.8 b CM-DAP+Urea 523.5 bc 4662.6 ab RH-DAP+Urea 17.7 b 22.9 b RH-DAP+Urea 1787.4 a 4473.0 ab P <0.001 P <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
  • 9. Farmers’ preferences on soil fertility management practices in Striga infested fields in 2012 (A) and 2013 (B). RH= rice husks, CM= cattle manure, NF = no-fertilizer 50 40 30 1st choice 2nd choice 20 10 0 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1st choice 2nd choice Farmers’ preferences on soil fertility management practices in Rhamphicarpa infested fields in 2012 (A) and 2013 (B). RH= rice husks, CM= cattle manure, NF = no-fertilizer 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1st choice 2nd choice 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1st choice 2nd choice
  • 10. Conclusion Partly confirmed reluctance of rice farmers in Kyela to use cattle manure as a soil fertility amendment in the fight against parasitic weeds as it stimulate infestation of non parasitic weeds Cattle manure, may help controlling Striga but not Rhamphicarpa. The use of cattle manure resulted in sub-optimal rice yields when used without inorganic fertilizer supplements Results from the upland rice field were more indecisive therefore the longer-term effects still need to be investigated in the coming years
  • 11. Acknowledgements Funding by NWO-WOTRO and the CGIAR Research ProgramCCAFS is gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks to farmers and other stakeholder for their input to the project Thank you for your attention Merci beaucoup Muito obrigado Asante sana