Parasite project overview june2011

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PARASITE -
Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment - project overview presented at the 11th World Congress on Parasitic Plants in Martina Franca, Italy, June2011

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Parasite project overview june2011

  1. 1. - PARASITE - Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Funded by: </li></ul><ul><li>The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, Science for Global Development (NWO-WOTRO) </li></ul><ul><li>Partners: </li></ul><ul><li>Wageningen University </li></ul><ul><li>Africa Rice Center </li></ul><ul><li>NARS of Benin, Côte d’Ivoire and Tanzania </li></ul>
  2. 2. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Principal investigators: </li></ul><ul><li>Lammert Bastiaans (WU) </li></ul><ul><li>Gualbert Gbèhounou (INRAB/FAO) </li></ul><ul><li>Alfons Oude Lansink (WU) </li></ul><ul><li>Jonne Rodenburg (AfricaRice) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Co-PI’s: </li></ul><ul><li>Patrice Adegbola (INRAB) </li></ul><ul><li>Louise Akanvou (CNRA) </li></ul><ul><li>Juma Kayeke (MARI) </li></ul><ul><li>Aad van Ast (WU) </li></ul><ul><li>Matty Demont (AfricaRice) </li></ul><ul><li>Laurens Klerkx (WU) </li></ul><ul><li>Monique Mourits (WU) </li></ul><ul><li>Project advisor </li></ul><ul><li>Ton Rotteveel (Plant Protection Service of the Netherlands: PPS) </li></ul><ul><li>PhD students: </li></ul><ul><li>Simon A. N’cho (WU) </li></ul><ul><li>Stella Kabiri (WU) </li></ul><ul><li>Mwalimu K. Menza (WU) </li></ul><ul><li>Gerald P. Kyalo (WU/AfricaRice)  </li></ul><ul><li>Post-doctoral fellow: </li></ul><ul><li>To be recruited </li></ul><ul><li>Promotors of PhD students: </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Alfons Oude Lansink </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Holger Meinke </li></ul><ul><li>Website: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.africarice.org/parasite/ </li></ul>
  3. 3. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment Rain-fed rice in sub-Saharan Africa <ul><li>Past 30 years: 170 % production increase and 300 % area increase of rice in SSA </li></ul><ul><li>Weeds are the most important biological production constraint </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitic weeds are becoming more important </li></ul>Upland Lowland Area (× 10 3 ha) 3,400 2,875 % total rice area 39 % 33 % Yield (t/ha) 1.04 1.02 Weed-inflicted yield loss (%) >16 >23 Min. annual production loss (10 6 $) 259 342
  4. 4. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment Rain-fed rice in sub-Saharan Africa <ul><li>Past 30 years: 170 % production increase and 300 % area increase of rice in SSA </li></ul><ul><li>Weeds are the most important biological production constraint </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitic weeds are becoming more important </li></ul>Past 30 years: 170 % production increase by 300 % area increase: expansion into marginal environments … habitats for parasitic weeds Upland Lowland Area (× 10 3 ha) 3,400 2,875 % total rice area 39 % 33 % Yield (t/ha) 1.04 1.02 Weed-inflicted yield loss (%) >16 >23 Min. annual production loss (10 6 $) 259 342
  5. 5. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment S. aspera S. hermonthica S. forbesii S. asiatica R. fistulosa
  6. 6. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Most important parasitic weeds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obligate hemi-parasitic witchweeds Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and S. asiatica (L.) Kuntze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facultative hemi-parasite Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Hochst.) Benth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Striga spp.: upland to hydromorphic soils </li></ul><ul><li>Rhamphicarpa: temporary flooded conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Explorative stakeholder surveys: parasitic weeds are widely distributed and cause major constraints to rain-fed rice in SSA </li></ul>
  7. 7. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Most important parasitic weeds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obligate hemi-parasitic witchweeds Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and S. asiatica (L.) Kuntze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facultative hemi-parasite Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Hochst.) Benth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Striga spp.: upland to hydromorphic soils </li></ul><ul><li>Rhamphicarpa : temporary flooded conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Explorative stakeholder surveys: parasitic weeds are widely distributed and cause major constraints to rain-fed rice in SSA </li></ul>Explorative stakeholder surveys sparked initiative for resource mobilization leading to current project
  8. 8. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Problem description </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitic weeds: affect the resource-poorest farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers: insufficient knowledge and means to address parasitic weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Extension services: lack awareness on extent and nature of problem, and basic knowledge on ecology and management </li></ul><ul><li>Large time gaps exist: from appearance of a parasitic weed problem to development/dissemination of strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Future environmental and land use changes: parasitic weeds might spread </li></ul><ul><li>Prerequisites for timely response: institutional innovations and improved stakeholder communication at the national crop protection level </li></ul>
  9. 9. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment Main goal Closing the knowledge gaps on the biology, ecology, economy and management of parasitic weeds in rice-based cropping systems in SSA and identifying and facilitating the institutional innovations required to timely address newly occurring biotic production constraints
  10. 10. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding environmental effects on host-parasite interactions in rain-fed rice </li></ul><ul><li>Developing and disseminating locally adaptable management strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing current and future direct and indirect economic and social impacts of parasitic weeds in rice </li></ul><ul><li>Improving institutional functioning of crop protection services </li></ul>
  11. 11. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment
  12. 12. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Sub-project 1: Biology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 2: Management </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 3: Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 4: Crop Protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Survey: Regional Impact </li></ul>
  13. 13. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Sub-project 1: Biology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 2: Management </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 3: Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 4: Crop Protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Survey: Regional Impact </li></ul>
  14. 14. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment Sub-project 1: Understanding how host-parasite interactions for economically important parasitic weed species of rain-fed rice in sub-Saharan Africa are differentially affected by environmental conditions Aim Obtaining insights in how local environmental conditions determine the presence of parasitic weeds and the interactions with their hosts; to envisage future infestations and effects and generate pointers for sustainable and effective control strategies
  15. 15. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment Sub-project 1: Understanding how host-parasite interactions … affected by environmental conditions <ul><li>Expected outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Sound understanding of the biology and ecology of R. fistulosa </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of major factors determining the prevalence of R. fistulosa and Striga species </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of clues for rigorous control of both categories of parasitic weeds in rice </li></ul>Methodology Greenhouse and growth chamber experiments on different life-cycle stages of the parasite with temp., CO 2 , water ranges; modelling
  16. 16. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Sub-project 1: Biology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 2: Management </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 3: Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 4: Crop Protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Survey: Regional Impact </li></ul>
  17. 17. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment Sub-project 2: Strategies for prevention and damage control of parasitic weeds in rain-fed rice production systems in sub-Saharan Africa Aim To develop locally adaptable and socially and economically acceptable strategies for prevention and control of parasitic weeds in rain-fed rice production systems
  18. 18. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment Sub-project 2: Strategies for prevention and damage control … <ul><li>Expected outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline information in Tanzania, Benin and Côte d’Ivoire on status of parasitic weeds infestation in rice </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate (socially acceptable) parasitic weed control strategies for rice farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Information and training tools on management of parasitic weeds for extension and farmers </li></ul>Methodology Farmer surveys, community demonstration trials with wide range of technologies, con-joint analyses to narrow down, followed by participatory technology testing
  19. 19. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Sub-project 1: Biology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 2: Management </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 3: Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 4: Crop Protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Survey: Regional Impact </li></ul>
  20. 20. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment Sub-project 3: Assessing current and future economic, social and environmental impacts of parasitic weeds in rice in SSA Aim Assess the main socio-economic impact of parasitic weeds incidence and their control in rain-fed rice systems of SSA to provide relevant information for developing and prioritizing weed management strategies and policies at regional and national level
  21. 21. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Expected outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Magnitude of yield losses in farmers’ fields </li></ul><ul><li>Economic impact of infestation and control options on rice yields, production costs and revenues </li></ul><ul><li>Costs and efficiencies of management strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Rice farmers’ preferences for different management strategies </li></ul>Methodology Multi-stage stratified and random sample farmer interviews, con-joint analyses, econometric modeling and analyses Sub-project 3: Assessing current and future economic, social and environmental impacts of parasitic weeds in rice in SSA
  22. 22. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Sub-project 1: Biology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 2: Management </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 3: Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 4: Crop Protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Survey: Regional Impact </li></ul>
  23. 23. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment Sub-project 4: Evaluating and addressing the institutional organisation and preparedness of crop protection systems in SSA for emerging biotic constraints under future changing environments: an innovation systems perspective Aim To reduce or avoid a time gap between the start of a biotic problem and initiation of research and extension initiatives for addressing this constraint
  24. 24. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment Sub-project 4: Evaluating and addressing the institutional organisation and preparedness of crop protection systems in SSA … <ul><li>Expected outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths and weaknesses in the institutional organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional innovations in the three countries in SSA </li></ul><ul><li>Model for timely pest outbreak alerts developed </li></ul>Methodology Analyses of communication pathways, developmental history of a biotic stress outbreak (from emergence to reporting and regulations); Exchange visits between crop protection services of SSA and The Netherlands
  25. 25. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Sub-project 1: Biology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 2: Management </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 3: Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-project 4: Crop Protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Survey: Regional Impact </li></ul>
  26. 26. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment Survey: regional distribution and agronomic and economic importance of parasitic weeds in rice in SSA <ul><li>Expected outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable figures on current and potential extent of the problem </li></ul>Methodology Consulting national and international data bases on rice and weed distribution and economic importance; Extensive region-wide expert poll; Feed-back exercises to verify information; Mapping, GIS, RS… Aim Reliable information on regional distribution and agronomic and economic importance of parasitic weeds in rice in SSA for priority setting of future research and development endeavours
  27. 27. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Expected project outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Figures on current extent of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Future scenarios with respect to parasite success, agronomic and socio-economic impacts as affected by climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Better insights in biology and ecology of parasitic weeds (in particular Rhamphicarpa fistulosa ) </li></ul><ul><li>Effective and socially acceptable management strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Improved communication and institutional organization of plant protection services </li></ul>
  28. 28. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment For more information: [email_address] or [email_address] Website: http://www.africarice.org/parasite/
  29. 29. PARASITE: Preparing African Rice Farmers Against Parasitic Weeds in a Changing Environment Asante/ Dank u/ Thank you / Merci

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