Beijing Forum 2011: Urban Development In Post-Conflict Angola
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Beijing Forum 2011: Urban Development In Post-Conflict Angola

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Allan Cain, director of Development Workshop Angola, made a presentation on the experience, of "urban development - ten years after the civil war". Like China, Angola is one of the world's fastest ...

Allan Cain, director of Development Workshop Angola, made a presentation on the experience, of "urban development - ten years after the civil war". Like China, Angola is one of the world's fastest urbanizing countries. The difference is that Angola has experienced decades of recent civil conflict, so the reconstruction of cities has become one of the country's key challenges. After the Civil War, the destruction of infrastructure, changes in institutional mechanisms, governance capacity needed to be rebuilt. Angola therefore was faced with severe challenges of urbanization and is undergoing social transformation. Allan Cain said that the poverty gap between rich and poor is still a major problem. One of the first goals is to rebuild the war damaged roads so that agricultural products and cheap food can reach urban markets for the city's poor. In addition, the Angolan government has introduced three strategies to promote poverty alleviation work, including universal access to “water for all”, a one million house programs, and municipal decentralization with the establishment of local consultative councils. Like all developing countries, the land issue also is a challenge for Angola's urban development. In the issue of urban re-construction in Angola, Allan Cain shared his policy recommendations: establish a legal framework for improving land transactions; to learn from China on the strengthening of financial management of the municipal levels of government; protection of women's rights; pilot projects; cooperation with the social media to raise public awareness.

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Beijing Forum 2011: Urban Development In Post-Conflict Angola Beijing Forum 2011: Urban Development In Post-Conflict Angola Presentation Transcript

  • Urban Development in Post-Conflict Angola ten years after Allan Cain DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP Presented to the 2011 BEIJING FORUM Panel Session IV Transformation and Stability: Achievements and Challenges in Developing Countries 04 - 06 October 2011 Beijing, Peoples Republic of China
  • Background on Angola & China • Angola is China’s principal African trading partner • 25% of China’s African commerce is with Angola • 15% of China’s petroleum imports are from Angola • Angola and China are two of the fastest urbanising countries in the world. • At 7% growth Luanda is the fastest growing city in Southern Africa. • Much of Angola’s post-war reconstruction is financed by Chinese credit lines. • Chinese – Angolan economic cooperation is estimated to be about US$ 25 billion over the last decade.
  • Post-War Angola • In four decades of conflict including 27 years of civil war, millions of Angolans fled the countryside for the relative safety of the big cities and their crowded shantytowns. • With their meager resources, they built dwellings on land obtained by mostly informal mechanisms, often with little security of tenure.
  • Post-Conflict Challenges • The war resulted in the destruction of infrastructure and the breakdown of institutions of all kinds • The ability of Government to maintain an administrative presence and collect data of all kinds was also negatively affected. • The last national census was conducted by the colonial regime in 1972 • The last complete national meteorological statistics were published for the year 1974. • The “gap” of more than thirty-five years of meteorological information coincides with the recent period of accelerated climate change.
  • Environmental & Climate Change 1932 1972 2007 The colonial government had built up an extensive network of over 500 meteorological stations across the country. Except for a few urban stations like Luanda most ceased reporting in the war.
  • Angola’s Decade of Transformations • • • • • A decade of post-war economic growth has transformed Angola, There are dramatic improvements in the country's infrastructure Rehabilitated roads are starting to bring cheaper food into the cities Urban development is taking place in the areas of commercial expansion catering to growing middle and upper income groups But many urban Angolans are still seeking to cross the line between poverty and prosperity.
  • Poverty and vulnerability • Many poor families have been excluded from the benefits of the post-war peace dividend. • In the decade since the end of the war the Angolan economy has grown by over 500% but at the same time poverty has only been reduced from 68% to 52% (CEIC 2011). • Still almost one in five children do not live until their fifth birthday (IBEP 2010).
  • Assessing post-conflict risks • The risks that caused the war were in fact not all resolved by the violent conflict… • Many risks were exacerbated rather than resolved by the war. • Physical, social and institutional infrastructure has been largely destroyed there is a very weak framework into which people can “re-integrate”
  • Resettlement and reintegration At the end of the war only 30% of the areas of return were considered to have achieved the minimum conditions for humanitarian resettlement (UN Guiding Principals) Landmine clearance Post-Conflict Risk Mapping
  • Eroded Institutions • Population migration has led to heterogeneous communities: but there were excluded groups in some communities. • The war encouraged mistrust, weakened customary leadership and eroded social capital (as shown by people retaining arms as an insurance policy) Post-Conflict Risk Mapping
  • • Institutions & Changing Roles of Customary rural institutions traditionally Women excluded women • Women’s roles however changed during conflict. They shoulder a major burden in reconstruction, and need to participate more actively in civil institutions.
  • Poverty and Socio-Economic Inclusion GINI Coefficient Comparison of GINI Coefficient Comparison of Extractive Industry States (2005) Extractive Industry States (2005) Norway Norway 0.26 Egypt Egypt 0.26 0.35 0.35 0.37 Algeria Algeria Cameroons Cameroons 0.37 0.43 Nigeria Nigeria 0.43 0.51 0.51 0.62 Angola Angola 00 0.1 0.1 0.2 [1] 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.62 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.7 Percentage of national business transactions that occur by province. (IBID 2006 & CEIC 2011) Indicators (2007) Luanda L.Norte L. Sul Malanje Bie Huambo National GDP per capita (US$) 8,783 432 907 1,960 237 394 3,422 Poverty Index % 45.1 64.2 64.0 73.7 83.6 56.5 55.5 Unemployment Rate % 20.9 18.9 18.7 19.7 22.4 37.5 27.4 Business Volume %[1] 71.2 0.6 1.6 1.3 0.3 4.2 100.0
  • Urban Challenges 76% of Luanda’s population lives in informal Musseques
  • 1980 - 19,42 Km² 1989 - 100,80 Km² 1998 - 253,27 Km² Luanda’s rapid urban growth in war and post-war years 2000 - 270,05 Km² 2010 – 350,00 Km² Development Workshop Angola
  • Financing urban development • Large-scale investment is needed in bulk provision, such as mains water supply and treatment, final rubbish disposal sites and mains sewerage. • Financing urban development in a situation such as Luanda, which has a low fiscal base, is a severe challenge. • This is due partly to the poverty of the majority of the inhabitants. • The weak taxation regime in general partly due to a lack of up-to-date cadastre and population census. • Financing is required at a scale that even the state cannot afford. • Partnerships with private sector and international lenders are necessary. • China has been the principal financer of Angolan reconstruction.
  • Chinese Economic Cooperation Contracts of Chinese Companies in Angola (2003 – 2009), US$ millions
  • Angola’s Poverty Reduction Strategy The Angolan Government has adopted four strategies that could have significant impacts on reducing urban poverty: 1. Water for All aims to bring an adequate and affordable supply of water to 80% of peri-urban and rural families by the end of 2012. 2. One million house programme aims to deliver social housing to the homeless by 2012. 3. Decentralisation and fiscal deconcentration aims to have democratically elected municipal councils after 2012. 4. Commitment to the Millennium Development Goals to reduce poverty by 50% by 2015.
  • One million house programme 115,000 houses to be supplied by State 685,000 houses to be self-built
  • Using MDG for Pro-Poor Monitoring Government policy • Building • partnerships by involving Civil Society in monitoring. Urban Observatory Poverty Monitoring for the Ministry of Urbanism and Environment (MINUA) using the MDG 11 indicators of:  Water  Environmental Sanitation  Overcrowding  Land tenure  Housing quality
  • Geographic Information Systems Participatory and spatial mapping Remote sensing
  • Building Population Density Model with Romote Sensing Focal areas of study Luanda’s population reached 7 million in 2010 and is currently growing at 7% per year.
  • Poverty Mapping of Luanda 76% of all Luanda's population lives in Musseques with inadequate housing, poor access to services and high environmental and tenure security risks.
  • Findings • The poor occupy much of the valuable inner-city land that is rapidly increasing in value. • Most of poor families accumulated savings are tied up in the land they occupy and the house they built or purchase. • Land tenure risks in peri-urban areas are increasing as occupancy rights remain insecure under new laws • Recognising the poor’s tenure is a strategy for poverty reduction.
  • Findings: Migration Demography and Low expectations of future emigration out of peri-urban areas Migration from rural areas in not the main factor for urban expansion. The largest percentage migrated from other bairros The population of the peripheral bairros of Luanda is growing mainly due to natural population increases and city-internal migration.
  • Findings: Precarious Land Tenure Only 6.8% of the urban population studied in Luanda have legalised tenure as defined by the current land legislation. Nenhum documento 14.4% Croquis de Localização 7.3% Direito de Superfície 0.5% Contrato de compra e venda 12.2% Recebi uma declaração 49.1% Titulo de ocupação precario 5.6% Registro Predial 0.5% Licença de arrem atação 0.2% Testemunhado por tecnico do governo 6.8% Acordo foi publicado 1.5% Recibo da utilidade publica 1.0% Outra 0.0% SISTEMA NACIONAL DE INFORMAÇÃO TERRITORIAL Cartao de morador 0.7%
  • Increasing Tenure Insecurity for the Poor • The poor often occupy valuable inner-city urban real-estate. • Urban Plans involve Forced Removals of the Poor from the Urban Centre and the creation of township-style settlments on the perifery on low-valued land. • Expropriation of the poor’s assets deepens poverty.
  • Informal Land Market Research • Luanda has a triving informal land market. 61.3% of transactions involve payments. • Since transactions are almost always documented they are not really be considered “informal” by most occupiers. • 85% of those interviewed consider these transactions to be legitimate. • The majority of transactions are not legally recognised by the State. Only 6.8% of land transactions are substantiated with documents that the State considers legal. • Most land occupiers risk loosing their land and housing assets is they become subject to forced removals, demolitions or re-location.
  • Land Value Mapping in Luanda 2010
  • 1. 2. Urban Land Policy Recommendations Promote more functional and inclusive land markets Integrate existing practice into an inclusive land policy 3. Recognize the right of occupation in ‘good faith’ 4. Incorporate the right to information into practice. 5. Introduce regulations for Incremental tenure 6. Strengthen institutions at the municipal level 7. Build municipal land information systems (cadastres) 8. Secure women’s land rights 9. Facilitate public policy advocacy and civic awareness 10. Execute pilot projects on land titling and land pooling 11. Ensure just compensation is paid in case of land expropriation
  • Dissemination of Lessons Publication of Results in book “TERRA”
  • Feeding the Public Domain CEDOC monthly Media Scan Terras 2001- 2010 Increasing media attention to land conflicts
  • Obrigado