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Yohannes GebreMichael: Participatory climate-change adaptation building on local innovation
 

Yohannes GebreMichael: Participatory climate-change adaptation building on local innovation

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    Yohannes GebreMichael: Participatory climate-change adaptation building on local innovation Yohannes GebreMichael: Participatory climate-change adaptation building on local innovation Presentation Transcript

    • Participatory climate-change adaptation building on local innovation Yohannes G/Michael & Ann Waters-Bayer
    • Facing the reality of climate change
      • Weather extremes will occur more frequently
      • Rising temperatures will favour agents of tropical diseases.
      • Agricultural production could decline by 50% by 2020.
      • By 2025, about 480 million people in Africa could be living in water-stressed areas.
      • Many African crop farmers will be shifting to livestock-keeping
      • Natural phenomenon is non liner and less predictable
    • Living with climatic variability
      • Climatic variability is not a new phenomenon in Ethiopia
      • From 1540 to 1800 AD, 26 major droughts and famines were recorded.
      • The “great Ethiopian famine” happened in the period 1889–92.
      • Pastoralist had been the victims and have developed mechanisms to cope with high climate variability.
      • Thus, they were practising adaptation long before the concept of “climate change” emerged
    • Pastoralists’ adaptation to climate variability
      • Pastoralists’ livelihoods primarily based on livestock that graze natural pasture.
      • Globally, it is assumed that up to 200 million people are pastoralists.
      • In Africa, it is assumed to be up to 40 million people
      • In Ethiopia, up to 15 million and using more than 60% of the territory.
      • Mobility is one of the most successful strategies used by most pastoralists.
    • Pastoralists’ adaptation…(2)
      • Mobility has multiple functions including:
      • - gaining access to water and pasture
      • - avoiding pests and diseases
      • - avoiding conflicts and risks of livestock raiding
      • - conserving biodiversity
      • Pastoralists keep different animals in order to:
      • - reduce risks and improve overall productivity
      • - obtain food, means of transport and income from marketing
      • - exploit different ecological niches
    • Pastoralists’ adaptation…(3)
      • Similarly, vegetation in the drylands has many purposes, such as: pasture, bee forage, materials for tools, medicinal plants, materials for rituals, wild fruits, fuelwood and early-warning indicators of impending drought
      • General attributes of viable pastoral production systems are: flexibility, dynamism, multi-functionality, complementarity and reciprocity in resource use
    • The paradox: productive and adaptable yet vulnerable pastoralists
      • Traditional pastoral systems can produce up to ten times more food per unit area than can modern ranching.
      • In Ethiopia, pastoralists keep about three-quarters of all goats in the country, one quarter of the sheep, 20% of the cattle and all of the camels.
      • The livestock sector ranks second after coffee in generating foreign exchange for Ethiopia: up to US$ 50 million per annum.
    • The paradox…(2)
      • Many policymakers in Ethiopia have a vision to settle the pastoralists, considering them to be backward, primitive and a cause of poverty and land degradation.
      • Many of the prime areas used by pastoralists for dry-season grazing are allocated for government farms, private investors and national parks.
      • This increasing marginalisation is making pastoralists more vulnerable to the effects of droughts and climate change.
      • Moreover, insufficient attention is given to the deep-rooted knowledge and adaptation practices of pastoralists and their customary institutions for dealing with land-management issues.
    • Determinants of pastoralists’ vulnerability to climate change
      • Change in responsibility for herd management
      • Herd size
      • Livestock species kept
      • Strength of customary socio-political institutions
      • Geographical location of resource exploitation
      • Land-use systems
      • Particular emphasis by pastoralists on the degree of good governance in customary institutions
    • Why look at local innovation?
      • Recognising local innovativeness leads to more equal partnership in R&D
      • Local innovations are sources of valuable new knowledge based on deep-rooted experience
      • Stimulates appropriate and pro-poor adaptation
      • An entry point that increases self-confidence and motivation to adapt
      • Greater likelihood of sustainability
    • P ROLINNOVA : P RO moting Local I NNOVA tion in ecologically oriented agriculture and NRM
      • Global learning network
      • Functional since 2003
      • Members include more than 150 organisations of multiple stakeholders (state and non-state)
      • Currently, 18 countries involved
      • Vision
      • A world in which women and men farmers play decisive
      • roles in research and development for sustainable livelihoods
      • Mission
      • To foster a culture of mutual learning and synergy in local
      • innovation process in agriculture and NRM
      • Goal
      • To develop and institutionalise partnerships and methods that
      • promote processes of local innovation for ecologically sound use of
      • natural resources
    • Approach and concepts in study on local innovation and climate change
      • P ROLINNOVA initiated an exploratory study with funds made available by the Netherlands (DGIS).
      • In 2008, some P ROLINNOVA partners in Ethiopia, Nepal and Niger started studies on local innovation in the face of climate change.
      • This paper is based on results in Ethiopia from s emi-structured interviews and discussions with different stakeholders, both individuals and focus groups in Afar, Somali and S.Omo
    • Approach and concepts…(2)
      • Innovation
      • Discovery of new and better ways of doing things
      • Not something inherited but could be building on existing technology / practice
      • Could also involve modification of introduced technologies
      • Every pastoralist has to be an innovator to some degree.
    • Approach and concepts…(3)
      • Adaptation
      • A continuous learning process
      • A response to actual or expected risks
      • Integrates mitigation in its process
      • Can be spontaneous or planned
      • Can involve technological or institutional/ management change or process
      • Can arise from a challenge or an opportunity
    • Challenges in understanding local innovation
      • Difficulties in separating climate-change impacts from other pressures on pastoral systems
      • Distinguishing between indigenous practices and local innovation
      • Recognising small but possibly important changes
      • Keeping a longer-term perspective
      • Keeping pace with fast change
    • Some of the pastoralists contacted
    • Pastoralists’ emerging responses to climate change
      • Developing their own cut and carry feeding system
      • Settlement around water points
      • Purchasing with credit
      • Changing herd composition
      • Settlement on islands in dryland lakes
      • Diversification of livelihood sources
      • Use of motor vehicles to transport water, fodder and/or animals
      • Use of Traditional early warning systems
      • Empowerment of traditional institutions
    • Major features of the local innovations
      • Wide range of different types of innovation
      • Group innovations
      • Multi-functionality of innovations
      • Diversification of livelihoods
    • Traditional early warning systems
    • Cut and carry feed from national parks
    • Increased rearing of small animals
    • Multipurpose use of trucks (water / livestock )
    • Prolonged flooding leads to more weeds: used as fodder followed by zero tillage
    • Opportunistic cropping
    • Lessons learned and the way forward
      • Recognising local innovativeness by pastoralists provides an entry point for a bottom-up approach to supporting climate-change adaptation, starting with local capacities and ideas.
      • Local innovation in adaptation to climate change needs to be assessed together with other environmental, socio-economic and policy changes .
      • Documentation of adaptation needed as a continuous process for a better understanding of community competence to adapt and of need for joint experimentation and policy reorientation.
    • Lessons learned…(2)
      • The focus should be not so much on specific innovations, but rather on documenting local innovation as a process .
      • Recognition of pastoralist innovation could lead to more equal partnership in formal research and development activities.
      • Results of such joint innovation processes would have a higher likelihood of sustainability than would starting interaction with external interventions that are foreign to the pastoralists.
    • Thank you