Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. MalnutritionFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search Malnutrition Classification and external resources The orange ribbon—an awareness ribbon for malnutrition. eMedicine ped/1360 MeSH [2]Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by an improper orinadequate diet and nutrition.[1][2] A number of different nutrition disorders may arise,depending on which nutrients are under or overabundant in the diet.The World Health Organization cites hunger as the gravest single threat to the worldspublic health.[3] Malnutrition is, by far, the biggest contributor to child mortality, presentin half of all cases.[3] Malnutrition, in the form of iodine deficiency, is the most commoncause of mental impairment, reducing the worlds IQ by an estimated billion points.[4][5]Improving nutrition is widely regarded as the most effective form of aid.[3][6]Contents[hide] • 1 Causes
  2. 2. o 1.1 Undernutrition  1.1.1 Agricultural productivity  1.1.2 Poverty and food prices  1.1.3 Dietary practices • 2 Effects • 3 Response to malnutrition o 3.1 Emergency measures o 3.2 Long term measures o 3.3 Restricting population size • 4 Malnutrition demographics o 4.1 Statistics o 4.2 Middle East o 4.3 South Asia o 4.4 United States • 5 See also o 5.1 Organizations • 6 References • 7 External links [edit] Causes[edit] Undernutrition[edit] Agricultural productivityFood shortages are caused by the lack of technology needed for the higher yields found inmodern agriculture, such as nitrogen fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. Reasons for theunavailability include moves to stop supplying fertilizer on environmental grounds, citedas the chief obstacle to feeding Africa by the Green revolution pioneer Norman Borlaug.[7] As a result of widespread poverty, farmers cannot afford or governments cannotprovide the technology. The World Bank and some wealthy donor countries also pressnations that depend on aid to cut or eliminate subsidized agricultural inputs such asfertilizer, in the name of free market policies even as the United States and Europeextensively subsidized their own farmers.[8][9] Many, if not most, farmers cannot affordfertilizer at market prices, leading to low agricultural production and wages and high,unaffordable food prices.[8]With 95% of all malnourished peoples living in the relatively stable climate region of thesub-tropics and tropics, climate change is of great importance to food security in theseregions. According to the latest IPCC reports, temperature increases in these regions are"very likely."[10] Even small changes in temperatures can lead to increased frequency ofextreme weather conditions.[11] Many of these have great impact on agriculturalproduction and hence nutrition. For example, the 1998-2001 central Asian droughtbrought about an 80% livestock loss and 50% reduction in wheat and barley crops in Iran.
  3. 3. [12] Similar figures were present in other nations. An increase in extreme weather such asdrought in regions such as Sub-Saharan would have even greater consequences in termsof malnutrition. Even without an increase of extreme weather events, a simple increase intemperature reduces the productiveness of many crop species, also decreasing foodsecurity in these regions.[13]Thomas Malthus noted overpopulation will outgrow food production as increases in foodproduction occur along a slow arithmetic progression while population growth followsmuch faster geometric progressions causing food shortages. This argument has long sincebeen refuted on several grounds but has nonetheless served as a backdrop forunderstanding of the causes of malnutrition. Food supplies can also be disrupted byimpacts of natural disasters, from the results of conflict and war, as an impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic[14] as a consequence of other health issues such as diarrheal disease orchronic illness [3] from lack of education regarding proper nutrition, or from countlessother potential factors.The use of biofuels as a replacement for traditional fuels may leave less supply of foodfor nutrition and raises the price of food.[15] The UN special rapporteur on the right tofood, Jean Ziegler proposes that agricultural waste, such as corn cobs and banana leaves,rather than crops themselves be used as fuel.[16]Colony collapse disorder is a phenomenon where bees are dying in large numbers. [17]Since many agricultural crops worldwide are pollinated by bees, this represents a seriousthreat to the supply of food.[18] An epidemic of stem rust on wheat caused by race Ug99 iscurrently spreading across Africa and into Asia and, it is feared, could wipe out couldwipe out more than 80% of the world’s wheat crops.[19][20][edit] Poverty and food pricesThe economist Amartya Sen observed that, in recent decades, famine has always aproblem of food distribution and/or poverty, as there has been sufficient food to feed thewhole population of the world. His states that malnutrition and famine were more relatedto problems of food distribution and purchasing power.[21]It is argued that commodity speculator are increasing the cost of food. As the real estatebubble in the United States was collapsing, it is said that trillions of dollars moved toinvest in food and primary commodities, causing the 2007-2008 food price crisis.[22][edit] Dietary practicesThe lack of breastfeeding leads to malnutrition in infants and children. Possible reasonsfor the lack in the developing world may be that the average family thinks bottle feedingis better.[23] The WHO says mothers abandon it because they do not know how to get theirbaby to latch on properly or suffer pain and discomfort.[24][edit] Effects
  4. 4. See also: child mortality and iodine deficiencyAccording to Jean Ziegler (the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Foodfor 2000 to March 2008), mortality due to malnutrition accounted for 58% of the totalmortality in 2006: "In the world, approximately 62 millions people, all causes of deathcombined, die each year. One in twelve people worldwide are malnourished.[25] In 2006,more than 36 millions died of hunger or diseases due to deficiencies in micronutrients"[26].The World Health Organization estimates that one-third of the world is well-fed, one-third is under-fed and one-third is starving. [25]According to the World Health Organization, malnutrition is by far the biggestcontributor to child mortality. Underweight births and inter-uterine growth restrictionscause 2.2 million child deaths a year. Poor or non-existent breastfeeding causes another1.4 million. Other deficiencies, such as lack of vitamin A or zinc, for example, accountfor 1 million. According to The Lancet, malnutrition in the first two years is irreversible.Malnourished children grow up with worse health and lower educational achievements.Their own children also tend to be smaller. Hunger was previously seen as something thatexacerbates the problems of diseases such as measles, pneumonia and diarrhea. Butmalnutrition actually causes diseases as well, and can be fatal in its own right.[3]Malnutrition increases the risk of infection and infectious disease; for example, it is amajor risk factor in the onset of active tuberculosis.[27] In communities or areas that lackaccess to safe drinking water, these additional health risks present a critical problem.Lower energy and impaired function of the brain also represent the downward spiral ofmalnutrition as victims are less able to perform the tasks they need to in order to acquirefood, earn an income, or gain an education.The Lancet, a British medical journal, reported that “Iodine deficiency is the mostcommon cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide.”[4] Even moderate iodinedeficiency, especially in pregnant women and infants, lowers intelligence by 10 to 15 I.Q.points, shaving incalculable potential off a nation’s development.[4] The most visible andsevere effects — disabling goiters, cretinism and dwarfism — affect a tiny minority,usually in mountain villages. But 16 percent of the world’s people have at least mildgoiter, a swollen thyroid gland in the neck.[4]Lifelong malnutrition can begin in utero and this can be associated with the mothersstature (associated with her childhood nutritional status), her nutritional status prior toconception, and diarrheal disease, intestinal parasites, and/or respiratory infection status.Multiple studies have shown that nutritional status of adults is substantially influenced bytheir nutritional experience from conception through early childhood. Even if individualshave had adequate nutrition from childhood on, their health outcomes are still impacted.[28] Children are not only affected by the consequences of malnourishment, but thesocieties they live in suffer as well. Both severe and moderate cases of malnutrition havea significant impact on the outcomes children face for the remainder of their lives and arealso a cause of severe illnesses leading to growth retardation both physical and mental,and possibly death. Considering the elevated risks of mortality among children that are
  5. 5. associated with moderate forms of malnutrition, combined with a high prevalenceworldwide, it would seem more appropriate to distinguish that the deaths of children as aresult of malnourishment is attributable to moderate, rather than severe conditions ofmalnutrition.Malnutrition appears to increase activity and movement in many animals - for examplean experiment on spiders showed increased activity and predation in starved spiders,resulting in larger weight gain.[29] This pattern is seen in many animals, including humanswhile sleeping.[30] It even occurs in rats with their cerebral cortex or stomachs completelyremoved.[31] Increased activity on hamster wheels occurred when rats were deprived notonly of food, but also water or B vitamins such as thiamine[32] This response may increasethe animals chance of finding food, though it has also been speculated the emigrationresponse relieves pressure on the home population.[30]Obesity is associated with many diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes,breathing difficulties during sleep, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Manyindigenous people across the Pacific and the Americas are at increased risk of ‘a majorwipe-out’ from Type 2 diabetes.[33][edit] Response to malnutritionMain articles: Ready-to-Use Therapeutic food and famine reliefFighting malnutrition, mostly through fortifying foods with micronutrients (vitamins andminerals), improves lives at a lower cost and shorter time than other forms of aid,according to the World Bank.[5] The Copenhagen Consensus, which look at a variety ofdevelopment proposals, ranked micronutrient supplements as number one. [6] [34]However, roughly $300m of aid goes to basic nutrition each year, less than $2 for eachchild below two in the 20 worst affected countries.[3] In contrast, HIV/AIDS, whichcauses fewer deaths than child malnutrition, received $2.2 billion—$67 per person withHIV in all countries.[3][edit] Emergency measuresMicronutrients can be obtained through fortifying foods.[6] Fortifying foods such aspeanut butter sachets (see PlumpyNut) and Spirulina have revolutionized emergencyfeeding in humanitarian emergencies because they can be eaten directly from the packet,do not require refrigeration or mixing with scarce clean water, can be stored for years andvitally can be absorbed by extremely ill children.[35] The United Nations World FoodConference of 1974 declared Spirulina as the best food for the future and its readyharvest every 24 hours make it a potent tool to eradicate malnutrition. Additionallysupplements, such as Vitamin A capsules or Zinc tablets to cure diarrhea in children, canbe used are used.[36] There is a growing realization among aid groups that giving cash orcash vouchers instead of food is a cheaper, faster, and more efficient way to deliver helpto the hungry, particularly in areas where food is available but unaffordable.[37] The UNsWorld Food Program, the biggest non-governmental distributor of food, announced that it
  6. 6. will begin distributing cash and vouchers instead of food in some areas, which JosetteSheeran, the WFPs executive director, described as a "revolution" in food aid.[37][38] Theaid agency Concern Worldwide is piloting an method through a mobile phone operator,Safaricom, which runs a money transfer program that allows cash to be sent from onepart of the country to another.[37]However, for people in a drought living a long way from and with limited access tomarkets, delivering food may be the most appropriate way to help.[37] Fred Cuny statedthat "the chances of saving lives at the outset of a relief operation are greatly reducedwhen food is imported. By the time it arrives in the country and gets to people, many willhave died."[39] US Law, which requires buying food at home rather than where the hungrylive, is inefficient because approximately half of what is spent goes for transport.[40] FredCuny further pointed out "studies of every recent famine have shown that food wasavailable in-country — though not always in the immediate food deficit area" and "eventhough by local standards the prices are too high for the poor to purchase it, it wouldusually be cheaper for a donor to buy the hoarded food at the inflated price than to importit from abroad."[41] Ethiopia has been pioneering a program that has now become part ofthe World Banks prescribed recipe for coping with a food crisis and had been seen by aidorganizations as a model of how to best help hungry nations. Through the countrys mainfood assistance program, the Productive Safety Net Program, Ethiopia has been givingrural residents who are chronically short of food, a chance to work for food or cash.Foreign aid organizations like the World Food Program were then able to buy foodlocally from surplus areas to distribute in areas with a shortage of food.[42][edit] Long term measuresMain article: food securityThe effort to bring modern agricultural techniques found in the West, such as nitrogenfertilizers and pesticides, to Asia, called the Green revolution, resulted in decreases inmalnutrition similar to those seen earlier in Western nations. This was possible becauseof existing infrastructure and institutions that are in short supply in Africa, such as asystem of roads or public seed companies that made seeds available.[43] Investments inagriculture, such as subsidized fertilizers and seeds, increases food harvest and reducesfood prices.[8][44] For example, in the case of Malawi, almost five million of its 13 millionpeople used to need emergency food aid. However, after the government changed policyand subsidies for fertilizer and seed were introduced against World Bank strictures,farmers produced record-breaking corn harvests as production leaped to 3.4 million in2007 from 1.2 million in 2005, making Malawi a major food exporter.[8] This loweredfood prices and increased wages for farm workers.[8] Proponents for investing inagriculture include Jeffrey Sachs, who has championed the idea that wealthy countriesshould invest in fertilizer and seed for Africa’s farmers.[8]Breast-feeding education helps. Breastfeeding in the first two years and exclusivebreastfeeding in the first six months could save 1.3 million children’s lives. [45] In thelonger term, firms are trying to fortify everyday foods with micronutrients that can be
  7. 7. sold to consumers such as wheat flour for Beladi bread in Egypt or fish sauce in Vietnamand the iodization of salt.[35][edit] Restricting population sizeRestricting population size is a proposed solution. Thomas Malthus argued thatpopulation growth could be done by natural disasters and voluntary limits through “moralrestraint.”[46] Robert Chapman suggests that an intervention through government policiesis a necessary ingredient of curtailing global population growth.[47] Garret Hardin takes ananti-immigration, isolationist approach arguing that “…all sovereign states must acceptthe responsibility of solving their population problems in their own territories" and thatimmigration acts as a sort of pressure release valve which allows countries to continue toignore solving their population problems.[48]For Amaryta Sen, “no matter how a famine is caused, methods of breaking it call for alarge supply of food in the public distribution system. This applies not only to organizingrationing and control, but also to undertaking work programmes and other methods ofincreasing purchasing power for those hit by shifts in exchange entitlements in a generalinflationary situation.”[49]One suggested policy framework to resolve access issues is termed food sovereignty, theright of peoples to define their own food, agriculture, livestock, and fisheries systems incontrast to having food largely subjected to international market forces. Food First is oneof the primary think tanks working to build support for food sovereignty. Neoliberalsadvocate for an increasing role of the free market. The World Bank itself claims to bepart of the solution to malnutrition, asserting that the best way for countries to succeed inbreaking the cycle of poverty and malnutrition is to build export-led economies that willgive them the financial means to buy foodstuffs on the world market.[edit] Malnutrition demographics[edit] StatisticsSee also: Global Hunger IndexThere were 923 million hungry people in the world in 2007, an increase of 80 millionsince 1990,[50] despite the fact that the world already produces enough food to feedeveryone - 6 billion people - and could feed the double - 12 billion people.[51] Year 1990 1995 2005 2007 [52]Hungry people in the world (millions) 842 832 848 923
  8. 8. Year 1970 1980 1990 2005 2007Share of hungry people in the developing world[53][54] 37 % 28 % 20 % 16 % 17 % • On the average, a person dies every second as a result of hunger - 4000 every hour - 100 000 each day - 36 million each year - 58 % of all deaths (2001-2004 estimates).[55][56][57] • On the average, a child dies every 5 seconds as a result of hunger - 700 every hour - 16 000 each day - 6 million each year - 60% of all child deaths (2002-2008 estimates).[58][59][60][61][62]Percentage of population affected by undernutrition by country, according to UnitedNations statistics.Number of undernourished people (million) in 2001-2003, according to the FAO, thefollowing countries had 5 million or more undernourished people [4]: Country Number of Undernourished (million)India 217.05China 154.0Bangladesh 43.45Democratic Republic of Congo 37.0Pakistan 35.2Ethiopia 31.5Tanzania 16.1Philippines 15.2Brazil 14.4Indonesia 13.8Vietnam 13.8Thailand 13.4Nigeria 11.5Kenya 9.7Sudan 8.8Mozambique 8.3North Korea 7.9
  9. 9. Yemen 7.1Madagascar 7.1Colombia 5.9Zimbabwe 5.7Mexico 5.1Zambia 5.1Angola 5.0Note: This table measures "undernourishment", as defined by FAO, and represents thenumber of people consuming (on average for years 2001 to 2003) less than the minimumamount of food energy (measured in kilocalories per capita per day) necessary for theaverage person to stay in good health while performing light physical activity. It is aconservative indicator that does not take into account the extra needs of peopleperforming extraneous physical activity, nor seasonal variations in food consumption orother sources of variability such as inter-individual differences in energy requirements.Malnutrition and undernourishment are cumulative or average situations, and not thework of a single days food intake (or lack thereof). This table does not represent thenumber of people who "went to bed hungry today."Various scales of analysis also have to be considered in order to determine thesociopolitical causes of malnutrition. For example, the population of a community maybe at risk if it lacks health-related services, but on a smaller scale certain households orindividuals may be at even higher risk due to differences in income levels, access to land,or levels of education [63]. Also within the household, there may be differences in levels ofmalnutrition between men and women, and these differences have been shown to varysignificantly from one region to another with problem areas showing relative deprivationof women [64]. Children and the elderly tend to be especially susceptible. Approximately27 percent of children under 5 in developing world are malnourished, and in thesedeveloping countries, malnutrition claims about half of the 10 million deaths each year ofchildren under 5.[edit] Middle EastMalnutrition rates in Iraq had risen from 19% before the US-led invasion to a nationalaverage of 28% four years later.[65][edit] South AsiaAccording to the Global Hunger Index, South Asia has the highest child malnutrition rateof worlds regions.[66] India contributes to about 5.6 million child deaths every year, morethan half the worlds total.[67] The 2006 report mentioned that "the low status of women inSouth Asian countries and their lack of nutritional knowledge are important determinantsof high prevalence of underweight children in the region" and was concerned that SouthAsia has "inadequate feeding and caring practices for young children".[67]
  10. 10. Half of children in India are underweight,[68] one of the highest rates in the world andnearly double the rate of Sub-Saharan Africa.[69]Research on overcoming persistent under-nutrition published by the Institute ofDevelopment Studies, argues that the co-existence of India as an economic powerhouseand home to one-third of the worlds under-nourished children reflects a failure of thegovernance of nutrition: "A poor capacity to deliver the right services at the right time tothe right populations, an inability to respond to citizens needs and weak accountabilityare all features of weak nutrition governance."[70] The research suggests that to makeunder-nutrition history in India the governance of nutrition needs to be strengthened andnew research needs to focus on the politics and governance of nutrition. At the currentrate of progress the MDG1 target for nutrition will only be reached in 2043 with severeconsequences for human wellbeing and economic growth.[71][edit] United StatesChildhood malnutrition is generally thought of as being limited to developing countries,but although most malnutrition occurs there, it is also an ongoing presence in developednations. For example, in the United States of America, one out of every six children is atrisk of hunger.[72] A study, based on 2005-2007 data from the U.S. Census Bureau and theAgriculture Department, shows that an estimated 3.5 million children under the age offive are at risk of hunger in the United States.[73] In developed countries, this persistenthunger problem is not due to lack of food or food programs, but is largely due to anunderutilization of existing programs designed to address the issue, such as food stampsor school meals. Many citizens of rich countries such as the United States of Americaattach stigmas to food programs or otherwise discourage their use. In the USA, only 60%of those eligible for the food stamp program actually receive benefits.[74] The U.S.Department of Agriculture reported that in 2003, only 1 out of 200 U.S. households withchildren became so severely food insecure that any of the children went hungry evenonce during the year. A substantially larger proportion of these same households (3.8percent) had adult members who were hungry at least one day during the year because oftheir households inability to afford enough food.[5][edit] See also • List of countries by percentage of population suffering from undernourishment • Anorexia nervosa • Dehydration • Essential nutrient • Famine • Food • Food price crisis • Global Hunger Index • Hunger • Illnesses related to poor nutrition • Micronutrient
  11. 11. • Nutrition • NutritionDay (in Europe) • Obesity • Plumpynut • specific appetite • Spirulina • Starvation • Underweight[edit] Organizations • World Food Programme • Share Our Strength • Food and Agriculture Organization • Intergovernmental Institution for the use of Micro-algae Spirulina Against Malnutrition (IIMSAM) • • GAIN Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition[edit] References 1. ^ malnutrition at Dorlands Medical Dictionary 2. ^ Sullivan, arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 481. ISBN 0-13-063085-3. locator=PSZ3R9&PMDbSiteId=2781&PMDbSolutionId=6724&PMDbCategoryI d=&PMDbProgramId=12881&level=4. 3. ^ a b c d e f Malnutrition The Starvelings 4. ^ a b c d In raising the world’s IQ the secret is in salt 5. ^ a b Raising the world’s IQ 6. ^ a b c The Hidden Hinger 7. ^ Forgotten benefactor of humanity 8. ^ a b c d e f Ending Famine, Simply by Ignoring the Experts 9. ^ Zambia: fertile but hungry 10. ^ "Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report." 12-17 Nov 2007. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 5 Nov 2008 < report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf>. 11. ^ "Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report." 12-17 Nov 2007. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 5 Nov 2008 < report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf>. 12. ^ Battista, David. "Climate Change in Developing Countries." University of Washington. Seattle. 27 Oct 2008. 13. ^ "Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report." 12-17 Nov 2007. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 5 Nov 2008 < report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf>.
  12. 12. 14. ^ Baro, Mamadou and Tara F. Duebel "Persistent Hunger: Perspectives on Vulnerability, Famine, and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa" Annual Anthropological Review. (2006) 35:521-38.15. ^ Biofuel use increasing poverty16. ^ Biofuels ‘crime against humanity17. ^ [1] Honey Bee Die-Off Alarms Beekeepers, Crop growers and researchers18. ^ Vanishing bees threaten US crops19. ^ Millions face famine as crop disease rages20. ^ A time bomb for world wheat crop21. ^ Sen, A.K. Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (1981)22. ^,1518,549187,00.html The role of speculators in the global food crisis23. ^ BBC news. Breastfeeding declines in Asia24. ^ Breastfeeding could save 1.3 million lives25. ^ a b ^ Jean Ziegler, LEmpire de la honte, Fayard, 2007 ISBN 978-2-253-12115-2 p.130.27. ^ Schaible UE, Kaufmann SH (2007). "Malnutrition and infection: complex mechanisms and global impacts". PLoS Med 4 (5): e115. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040115. PMID 17472433. document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040115.28. ^ Behrman, J.R., Harold Alderman, and John Hoddinott. 2004. Hunger and Malnutrition. Copenhagen consensus-Challenges and Opportunities. http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com29. ^ Provencher, L.; Riechert, S.E. (1991) Short-Term Effects of Hunger Conditioning on Spider Behavior, Predation, and Gain of Weight Oikos 62:160-16630. ^ a b Wald, G.; Jackson, B. (1944) Activity and Nutritional Deprivation Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 30:255-26331. ^ "George Wald: The Origin of Death". Retrieved 2007-05-14.32. ^ Guerrant, N.B., Dutcher, R.A. (1940) Journal of Nutrition 20:589.33. ^ Diabetes threat to indigenous34. ^ Let them eat micronutrients35. ^ a b [ Firms target nutrition for the poor]36. ^,9171,1914655,00.html Can one pill tame the illness no one wants to talk about?37. ^ a b c d UN aid debate: give cash not food?
  13. 13. 38. ^ Cash roll-out to help hunger hot spots39. ^ Andrew S. Natsios (Administrator U.S. Agency for International Development)40. ^ Let them eat micronutrients41. ^ memorandum to former Representative Steve Solarz (United States, Democratic Party, New York) - July 199442. ^ A model of African food aid is now in trouble43. ^ _r=1&hp&oref=slogin In Africa, prosperity from seeds falls short44. ^ How a Kenyan village tripled its corn harvest45. ^ Millions of children dying needlessly.46. ^ Malthus, Robert Thomas. 1976 (1798). An Essay on the Principle of Population. Philip Appleman, ed. New York: Norton.47. ^ Chapman, Robert. 1999. “No Room at the Inn, or Why Population Problems are Not All Economic.” Population and Environment, 21(1): 81-97.48. ^ Hardin, Garrett. 1992. “The Ethics of Population Growth and Immigration Control.” In Crowding Out the Future: World Population Growth, US Immigration, and Pressures on Natural Resources, Robert W. Fox and Ira H. Melham, eds. Washington, DC: Federation for American Immigration Reform.49. ^ Sen, Amartya. 1982. Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlements and Deprivation, Oxford: Clarendon Press.50. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization Economic and Social Development Department. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2008 : High food prices and food security - threats and opportunities”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2008, p. 2. “FAO’s most recent estimates put the number of hungry people at 923 million in 2007, an increase of more than 80 million since the 1990–92 base period.”.51. ^ Jean Ziegler. “Promotion And Protection Of All Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social And Cultural Rights, Including The Right To Development: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Jean Ziegler”. Human Rights Council of the United Nations, January10, 2008.“According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the world already produces enough food to feed every child, woman and man and could feed 12 billion people, or double the current world population.”52. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization Economic and Social Development Department. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2008 : High food prices and food security - threats and opportunities”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2008, p. 48.53. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization Agricultural and Development Economics Division. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2006 : Eradicating world hunger – taking stock ten years after the World Food Summit”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2006, p. 8. “Because of population growth, the very small decrease in the number of hungry people has nevertheless resulted in a reduction in the proportion of undernourished people in the developing countries by 3 percentage points – from 20 percent in 1990–92 to 17 percent in 2001–03. (…) the prevalence of undernourishment declined by 9
  14. 14. percent (from 37 percent to 28 percent) between 1969–71 and 1979–81 and by a further 8 percentage points (to 20 percent) between 1979–81 and 1990–92.”.54. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization Economic and Social Development Department. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2008 : High food prices and food security - threats and opportunities”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2008, p. 6. “Good progress in reducing the share of hungry people in the developing world had been achieved – down from almost 20 percent in 1990–92 to less than 18 percent in 1995–97 and just above 16 percent in 2003– 05. The estimates show that rising food prices have thrown that progress into reverse, with the proportion of undernourished people worldwide moving back towards 17 percent.”.55. ^ Jean Ziegler. “The Right to Food: Report by the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, Mr. Jean Ziegler, Submitted in Accordance with Commission on Human Rights Resolution 2000/10”. United Nations, February 7, 2001, p. 5. “On average, 62 million people die each year, of whom probably 36 million (58 per cent) directly or indirectly as a result of nutritional deficiencies, infections, epidemics or diseases which attack the body when its resistance and immunity have been weakened by undernourishment and hunger.”.56. ^ Commission on Human Rights. “The right to food : Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/25”. Office Of The High Commissioner For Human Rights, United Nations, April 22, 2002, p. 2. “every year 36 million people die, directly or indirectly, as a result of hunger and nutritional deficiencies, most of them women and children, particularly in developing countries, in a world that already produces enough food to feed the whole global population”.57. ^ United Nations Information Service. “Independent Expert On Effects Of Structural Adjustment, Special Rapporteur On Right To Food Present Reports: Commission Continues General Debate On Economic, Social And Cultural Rights”. United Nations, March 29, 2004, p. 6. “Around 36 million people died from hunger directly or indirectly every year.”.58. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization Staff. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2002: Food Insecurity : when People Live with Hunger and Fear Starvation”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2002, p. 6. “6 million children under the age of five, die each year as a result of hunger.”59. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Economic and Social Dept. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2004: Monitoring Progress Towards the World Food Summit and Millennium Development Goals”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2004, p. 8. “Undernourishment and deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals cost more than 5 million children their lives every year”.60. ^ Jacques Diouf. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2004: Monitoring Progress Towards the World Food Summit and Millennium Development Goals”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2004, p. 4. “one child dies every five seconds as a result of hunger and malnutrition”.61. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization, Economic and Social Dept. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005: Eradicating World Hunger - Key to Achieving the Millennium Development Goals”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the
  15. 15. United Nations, 2005, p. 18. “Hunger and malnutrition are the underlying cause of more than half of all child deaths, killing nearly 6 million children each year – a figure that is roughly equivalent to the entire preschool population of Japan. Relatively few of these children die of starvation. The vast majority are killed by neonatal disorders and a handful of treatable infectious diseases, including diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria and measles. Most would not die if their bodies and immune systems had not been weakened by hunger and malnutrition moderately to severely underweight, the risk of death is five to eight times higher.”. 62. ^ Human Rights Council. “Resolution 7/14. The right to food”. United Nations, March 27, 2008, p. 3. “6 million children still die every year from hunger-related illness before their fifth birthday”. 63. ^ Fotso, Jean-Christophe and Barthelemy Kuate-Defo. "Measuring Socio- economic Status in Health Research in Developing Countries: Should We Be Focusing on Households, Communities, or Both?" Social Indicators Research. (2005) 72:189-237. 64. ^ Nube, M. and G.J.M. van dem Boom. "Gender and Adult Undernutrition in Developing Countries." Annals of Human Biology (2003) 30:5:520-537. 65. ^ Third of Iraqi children now malnourished four years after US invasion Reuters. 16 March, 2007 66. ^ "2008 Global Hunger Index Key Findings & Facts". 2008. media/200610GHI/GHIFindings.asp. 67. ^ a b "Hunger critical in South Asia". BBC. 2006. 68. ^ Survey Says Nearly Half of Indias Children Are Malnourished, CBS News, February 10, 2007 69. ^ "India: Undernourished Children: A Call for Reform and Action". World Bank. T/0,,contentMDK:20916955~pagePK:146736~piPK:146830~theSitePK:223547,0 0.html. 70. ^ Lifting the Curse: Overcoming Persistent Undernutrition in India IDS Bulletin 40(4): 2, July 2009 71. ^ Lifting the Curse: Overcoming Persistent Undernutrition in India IDS Bulletin Vol 40, Number 4, July 2009 72. ^ "Childhood Hunger in America". Share Our Strength. 2009. 73. ^ "3.5M Kids Under 5 On Verge Of Going Hungry Study: 11 Percent Of U.S. Households Lack Food For Healthy Lifestyle" ("SHTML). Health. CBS NEWS. 2009-05-07. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 74. ^ "Plan to End Childhood Hunger in America". Share Our Strength. 2009.[edit] External links
  16. 16. Look up malnutrition or undernutrition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. This articles external links may not follow Wikipedias content policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links. (March 2009)• Share Our Strength: An organization primarily concerned with hunger problems in developed countries such as the United States.• The environmental food crisis A study done by the UN on feeding the world population (2009)• Action Against Hunger - Giving the most basic of Human Rights - The right to Food• Dan Jakopovich, A Few Basic Facts: On Hunger and Capital, Against the Current, March/April, No.133, 2008.• The CE-DAT Complex Emergency Database - A source of data on malnutrition and mortality in conflict-affected populations• A Life Saver Called "Plumpynut", CBS 60 Minutes, October 21, 2007• MSF Warns More Food Will Not Save Malnourished Children Group Calls for Increased and Expanded Use of New, Innovative Nutritional Products• Micro-algae Algosophette• Intergovernmental Institution for the use of Micro-algae Spirulina Against Malnutrition (IIMSAM)• Reports on World Nutrition Situation The annual reports prepared by UN Standing Committee on Nutrition contain detailed information on common challenges, extent of malnutrition, efforts being taken to address them, and a wealth of other useful information.• Physical Growth & Nutritional status• World Hunger Map (from United Nations World Food Programme)• FAO country statistics• HungryKids Info on malnutrition from HungryKids• Fighting Hunger and poverty in Ethiopia (Peter Middlebrook)• Meds & Food for Kids - Fighting malnutrition in Haiti one child at a time.• Malnutrition• And why not Spirulina as solution?• GAIN - Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition• School Feeding Programs for Children Interviews with World Food Programme officials about the status of school feeding programs for children in developing countries• Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition & Malnutrition Optimal maternal, infant and young child feeding and caring practices reduce underweight and stunting and set the foundations for appropriate growth.• Food for Peace: Eisenhowers Unsung Initiative Can Be Obamas Most Powerful Tool for Peace Global hunger article on the History News Network• "Human Rescue Plan". World Food Programme, 2009 (video).
  17. 17. [hide]v•d•e Nutrition disorders (E40-68, 260-269) Protein- energy Kwashiorkor · Marasmus · Catabolysis malnutrition B1: Beriberi/Wernickes encephalopathy(Thiamine deficiency) · B2: B Ariboflavinosis · B3: Pellagra(Niacin vitaminsdeficiency) · B6: Pyridoxine deficiency · B7: Biotin deficiency · B9: Folate deficiency ·Hypoalimentation/ Avitaminosis B12: Vitamin B12 deficiencymalnutrition A: Vitamin A deficiency/Bitots spots · Other C: Scurvy · D: Rickets/Osteomalacia · vitaminsE: Vitamin E deficiency · K: Vitamin K deficiency Zinc · Iron · Magnesium · Chromium · Selenium Mineral (Keshan disease) · Manganese · Molybdenum · Copper · deficiency Calcium · Potassium Overweight Childhood obesity · Obesity hypoventilation syndrome · · Obesity Abdominal obesity Vitamin Hypervitaminosis A · Hypervitaminosis D ·Hyperalimentation poisoning Hypervitaminosis E Mineral see inborn errors of metal metabolism, toxicity overloadRetrieved from ""Categories: Malnutrition | Public health | Humanitarian aid | Nutrition | Poverty | Healthproblems in India