Invasions of England Roman Invasion of EnglandA brief chronology of English55 BC Roman invasion of Britain by Julius Caesar. Roman invasion and occupation. Beginning of Roman Local inhabitants speakAD 43 rule of Britain. Celtish436 Roman withdrawal from Britain complete. Roman Britain was the part of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between AD 43 and about 410. The Romans referred to their territory as Britannia, and it eventually consisted of all of the island south of the shifting frontier with Caledonia. Prior to the Roman invasion, Iron Age Britain already had cultural and economic links with Continental Europe, but the invaders introduced new developments in agriculture, urbanisation, industry and architecture, leaving a legacy that is still apparent today. Historical records beyond the initial invasion are sparse, although many Roman historians mention Britannia in passing, and the names of many of its governors are known. Most knowledge of Roman Britain stems from archaeological investigations and especially epigraphicevidence The first Romans to campaign extensively in Britain werethe forces of Julius Caesar in 55 and 54 BC, but the firstsignificant conquest did not begin until AD 43, under Claudius.The Romans established a provincial government and steadilyextended their control north, but were never able to exert firmcontrol over Caledonia. Following the conquest of the nativeBritons, a distinctive Romano-British culture emerged. TheRomans cemented the provinces northern border withHadrians Wall, completed around 128. In 142, they pushed thefrontier north to the Forth-Clyde line, constructing the AntonineWall, but they retreated back to Hadrians Wall after
approximately twenty years. Around 197, Britannia was dividedinto two provinces, Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior; atsome point after 305, it was subdivided even further and made intoan imperial diocese. For much of the later period, Britannia wassubject to barbarian invasion and often came under the control ofimperial usurpers and pretenders. The Romans largely departedfrom Britain around 410, leading to what is known as the sub-Roman period, but the legacy of the empire was felt for hundredsof years.Manal Al-Ghanem
Anglo-Saxons InvasionWho were the Anglo-Saxons?The Angle, Saxon, and Jute tribes who invaded Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries areknown as the Anglo-Saxons. They left their homelands in northern Germany , Denmark and northern Holland and rowed across the North Sea in wooden boats.Why did they come?Historians are not sure why the Anglo-Saxons came to Britain. It may have been becausetheir land often flooded and it was difficult to grow crops, so they were looking for newplaces to settle down and farm. Some sources say that Saxon warriors were invited to cometo England.Where did they settle?The Anglo-Saxons ruled most of Britain but never conquered Cornwall in the south-west, Wales in the west, or Scotland in the north. They divided the country intokingdoms, each with its own royal family. The stronger kingdoms often took control of theweaker kingdoms. By around AD 600 the five main Anglo-Saxon kingdoms wereNorthumbria, Mercia, Wessex, Kent and Anglia.
How did England get its name?The Roman Britons spoke Latin or local Celtic languages. The newcomers spoke theirown languages, which in time became a language now known as Anglo-Saxon or OldEnglish. The Anglo-Saxons themselves called it Englisc. The country taken over bythe new settlers became England.
450 - Invasion of the Jutes from Jutland, Angles from South of Denmark and 750 Saxons from Germany. Britain is divided up into the Seven Kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, Essex, Sussex and Kent. 450 Saxons Hengist and Horsa settle in Kent. 460 St Patrick returns to convert Ireland 510 The Battle of Mount Badon: British victory over the Saxons 597 St Augustine brings Christianity to Britain from Rome and becomes Archbishop of Canterbury 617 Northumbria becomes the Supreme Kingdom 779 Mercia becomes the Supreme Kingdom and King Offa builds a Dyke along the Welsh BorderTime Table of Anglo-Saxons Invasion in England.Work Cited:http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/anglo_saxons/invasion_and_settlement/http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/history.html Maram Sadhan
The Viking Invasion of England The Vikings came from three countries of Scandinavia: Denmark, Norway andSweden. The name Viking comes from a language calledOld Norse and means a pirate raid. People who went offraiding in ships were said to be going Viking. The Viking age in European history was about AD 700 to 1100. During this period many Vikings left Scandinavia and travelled to other countries, such as Britain and Ireland. Some went to fight and steal treasure. Others settled in new lands as farmers, craftsmen or traders Between the eighth and eleventh centuries, raiders and colonists from Scandinavia, mainly Danish and Norwegian, plundered western Europe including the British Isles. These raiders came to be known as the Vikings; the name is believed to derive from Scandinavia, where the Vikings originated. The first raids in the British Isles were inthe late eighth century, mainly on churches and monasteries (which were seen as centres ofwealth).They bulid a wall to protect their right.Najah Al-Mutairi
The Norman Invasion of England The Origin of Normandy: At the 10th century, Europe was living under the Viking age whom are sailors come from the Scandinavian countries ( Denmark, Sewed and Norway). There was a Danish invasion targeting regions in France which was under the command of Hrolf the Ganger .France in that period was not as it seems today, it was divided into regions rolled nominally by the French king Charles II. Charles II could not face the Danish invasion. So, instead of giving them gold and silver, he gave them the land around Rouen. After that Hrolf converted to Christianity and changed his name to Rollo. He then became the first Duke of Normandy (meaning “land of the northmen”.) And by the time of his grandson William, Normandy has expanded more. Later on, Normandy was brought back again under the French rule again. The Normans Invasion of England: On Janueary5, 1066, king Edward who was the king of England at that time had diedchildless. The thing that left the crown of England as a target to three rivals whom areWilliam of Normandy, Harold Godwinson (the second most powerful man in England) andHarald Hardrada, King of Norway. This events had led to the downfall of the Anglo Saxonrule in England at that time particularly after the Hastings battle. Harold Godwinson was a powerful respectful man and an advisor to king Edward.Besides, he and king Edward had become brothers-in-low when the king had marriedHarolds sister. Due to these reasons and because when the king was dying he said: IntoHarolds hands I commit my Kingdom.", the royal advisors has selected him as the next kingof England. With the placing of the crown, the troubles of Harold got started. In the same time and across the English channel, the king of Normandy William hadalso claimed that he has the right of being the king of England. His claiming comes due to theblood relationship between him and king Edward that they were distant cousins. Accordingto William, king Edward at 1064 had said that the next successor is going to be him and thismessage was carried by Harold. Also (according to William), that Harold had swear that hewould support Williams rights to the thorn. So, to him it is a quiet persuaded reason tomake an army and invade England. What supports William position is the voice of the Popesince Harold had swear on Williams side and did not keep his word. The third rival for the thorn was Harald Hardrada, King of Norway. With the claimthat since a long time, the Danish ruler for England had cut a deal with the ruler of Norway
that if any one of them died first the other would get the two countries since they were childless (male). The ruler of England died first and the other was busy with other battles, so his uncle who was joining him the ruling of Norway decided to be the king according to the old deal. This particularly event makes Harold busy in trying to protect his country from the Norwegian invasion in York city at the north. The thing that make the Normans plotting on the thorn easily. Harold and his army had win their battle at the north, and asthey went back to London, they received the news of Williams landing near Hastings. The Normans invasion was ready for crossing the English channel on July, butunfortunately they were delayed by the north wind for six weeks. Finally, on September 27,the wind shifted to the south and the army moved to Hastings. Immediately, Harold took hisarmy to the south. On the following day October 14, The English has watched at the morningthe Normans worriers forming a battle line and separated from them of few hundred yards.The two armies started to insult each others. The Normans then started to shot the Englishof rains of arrows, and the English tried to protect themselves. Finally, the English gaveaway. King Harold had fell as the majority of the Saxons aristocracy. Williams victory wascomplete. On Christmas day 1066, William was crowned King of England in WestminsterAbbey.References:1- http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/bayeux.htm.2- Kelly, Patrick. http://www.albion-swords.com/articles/norman.htm.Done by:Esraa Al-Najjar
French Invasion of EnglandThe loss of Normandy and war with France By the dawn of the 12th century, Normandys protection from French invasion relied heavily on English silver, expended in vast quantities by Richard I on defensive fortifications. However, the French swept through the Duchy in 1204, and castle after castle fell with bewildering rapidity. King John was unceremoniously evicted from his continental lands back to England; only Gascony was retained. For the first time since the Conquest, the Channel became Englands first line of defence. To his credit, John realised that dominance of the Channel was crucial if England was to be saved, and expended vast sums building a navy. Planned French invasions in 1205 and 1213 were thwarted at sea, but during the crisis of 1215 the rebellious barons invited Frenchtroops under Prince Louis to land unopposed to assist with their struggle over Magna Carta.Dover Castle, a vital communications centre on Englands south coast, was besieged in 1216.The defenders held out - just - and after Johns timely death. the French were soon drivenfrom Englands shores. Thereafter the Channel was the key to English security. An uneasy peace held formost of the 13th century; but tension grew as Englands important naval links with Gasconywere threatened. War erupted in 1337, and its course over the next century was shaped bythe struggle for naval supremacy. The French fleet initially held the upper hand, allowingtheir land troops to occupy and burn Southampton in 1338. Buoyed by this success, a full-scale invasion was planned in 1339. Edward IIIs spectacular naval victory at Sluys in 1340 ata stroke destroyed the French fleet, removed the threat ofinvasion and secured English dominance of the Channel.Furthermore the capture of Calais in 1347 gave the English afoothold on the Continent - the equivalent of the Frenchholding Dover castle - and permitted large-scale invasions ofFrance. For the remainder of the 14th century and the first halfof the 15th, the Hundred Years War was fought on French soil.Although most of England was safe from invasion, the southerncoastline was terrorised by swift yet damaging French raids,exemplified by the destruction of Winchelsea in 1360. Fears of
more serious incursions were raised in 1385, and in 1400 French troops assisted the revolt ofOwen Glendower in the Welsh marches. However Henry Vs conquest of Normandy broughtrenewed security to England that had not been enjoyed since 1204.Reference:"The Threat of Invasion 1066-1789: An Overview" By Dr Niall BarrLast updated 2011-02-17Tahani Al-Hammami