How to recruit effectively to Africa - Recruitment channels

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  • 1. How to recruiteffectively to Africa!Recruitment channelsPractical guide to effective recruitment to Africa. L’Afrique à l’affût de tous les talents
  • 2. 2 How to recruit effectively to Africa! - Recruitment channels
  • 3. Dear Business Leaders,L’Afrique à l’affût de tous les talents204 rue du St-Sacrement #300 Africa has been experiencing a sustained growth of nearly 5% of GDP for theMontréal, QC H2Y 1W8 past 10 years. This economic growth also comes with a consequent need forTel: 514-907-08-56 labor. However, ignorance of certain aspects of culture, politics, technology, etc.Email: ensures that deployed strategies are often not optimized. Therefore, with document, we focus on leading practices for recruitment of talent in Africa. It is critical that organizations be able to develop effective and efficient strategies in terms of planning their human resources to ensure sustainability of their activities.Acknowledgements Some organizations with experience and knowledge of the continent are alreadyCompletion of this guide was made by Af-futjob. aware of some of the practices developed in this guide. For others, it will be theWe thank all our contributors for taking the opportunity to become familiar with it.time to correct the study, and our presentguide. Through this guide we are trying put you in the best conditions 1) to find ideal talents and 2) to maximize your full potential in regard to that of Africa.Design and DraftingAffutjobGraphic chart Teddy Ngou MilamaAgence BigBenProd CEO 3 Practical guide to effective recruitment to Africa.
  • 4. Table of Contents Introduction P3 Who can use this guide? P3 How to use this guide? P3 Glossary P3 STEP 1 Diagnostic P4 STEP 2 Environment Analysis P6 STEP 3 Summary of Recruitment Channels P8 STEP 4 Case Study P14 Conclusion P16 Bibliography P174 How to recruit effectively to Africa! - Recruitment channels
  • 5. IntroductionAffutjob took the initiative to offer this practical guide whose aim is to effectively enhance the recruit-ment of any business Africa. Who can use this guide?Anyone responsible for recruitment in Africa (CEO, VP, director and HR manager, etc.). The guide can also be used as adashboard etc. How to use this guide?This guide is divided as follows: A quiz to help you make a quick diagnosis of your organizational practices in terms of recruitment in Africa. An environment analysis A summary of recruitment channels Case study Recommendations GlossaryDiaspora : Terme pour décrire d’abord un phénomène de dispersion d’une partie d’une population au-delà de ses fron-tières nationales. Pour constituer une diaspora, les communautés d’expatriés doivent cependant conserver des attachesavec le pays d’origine, ou des pratiques ou des habitudes propres au pays1Diaspora: Term first used to describe a phenomenon of dispersion of a portion of a population beyond its national bor-ders. To constitute a Diaspora, expatriate communities must however maintain ties with the country of origin, or practicesor customs of country-specificPan-African: Of or relating to all African countriesPrejudice: An adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or examination of the facts, A pre-conceived preference or idea: To have a prejudice against someone.Rate appeals: a means businesses use to find candidates.Recruitment rate: portion of recruits that can be attributed to each channelEfficiency ratio: ratio between recruitment rates and rate appeals. The effectiveness rate is high in the event of a channelless mobilized but often leading to recruitment, whereas it is low in the opposite case.Recruitment channels: available means for candidates and recruiters to get in touch. They include unsolicited applica-tions, job postings, and contacts.1éjugé/63519 5 Practical guide to effective recruitment to Africa.
  • 6. STEP 1 Diagnostic Before getting started, it is essential to conduct a survey concerning the current situation of organizational practices on the choice of recruitment channels. To do this, please respond instinctively to the questions be- low: 1) In your recruitment problems in Africa, do you happen to not fill your vacancies?* 2) In your opinion what are the reasons? 3) Have you happened to hire a person with a qualification level below that required for the job?* 4) When successfully recruiting a candidate matching the desired qualification, do you have any particular dif- ficulties? If so, please list them. 5) You find recruitment of candidates to Africa to be: Not difficult Slightly difficult Difficult Very difficult6 How to recruit effectively to Africa! - Recruitment channels
  • 7. 6) What was the recruitment process delay from broadcasting to hiring the candidate? Less than a week Between 3 and 4 weeks Between 1 and 2 weeks Between 4 and 5 weeks Between 2 and 3 weeks More than 5 weeks7) What recruitment channels did you use to fill your vacancies? Please rank them in order of importance (frommost to least important).8) From the mentioned channels, which ones helped recruit more candidates. Please rank them (from best toleast effective).9) Are you satisfied with your overall recruitment process in Africa? Not at all To a large extent To a small extent To a considerable extent In an average measure10) Are you actively involved in developing the program staffing of your organization? Yes NoYou have just received a photograph of your recruitment practices to Africa. It will serve as a standard to measure prog-ress or not of your recruitment practices after completing this guide.If you still want to improve your recruitment process and / or are very curious, you can advance to the next step: theenvironment analysis.* Taken from Spécificités et performances des canaux de recrutement by Anne-Sophie Genevois.* 7 Practical guide to effective recruitment to Africa.
  • 8. STEP 2 Environment analysis You have already written the job offer and are ready to distribute it to different channels; two seconds is all you have to take a deep breath of fresh air. You have to complete a preliminary step: The environment analysis of the country in which you want to publish the offer (political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, etc.). Why? Because the contextual analysis (in economic, socio-cultural, technological, etc.) will provide solid information to guide you to efficient and effective sources of recruitment that will maximize your hiring goals. For purposes of illustration, here is a brief macroscopic analysis of the African market. This exercise is to be performed for each country in which the organization wishes to meet its recruitment needs. External factors’ influence Political Political Political stability has increased substantially in Strong regional disparities can represent a bar- Africa in recent years 1 rier to trade 19 Strengthening mechanisms of counterbalance 2 Canada’s image to be restored in Africa 20 Corruption remains a plague in Africa 21 Ecological Economic Africa’s growth rate of 5 % on average in recent The high cost of Internet in Africa 22 years has been stronger than on any other conti- nent 3 Serious economic inequality in Africa 23 Quebec exports to Africa have tripled from $168 Africa employs more than 150,000 expatriates million in 2000 to $493 million in 2007 4 that cost more than $4 billion/year 24 More than 600 German companies in Africa (sales of $25 billion in Africa/Nigeria’s first employer) 5 Nearly 1,000 Chinese companies in Africa have signed for about $12 billion worth of contracts (81% increase of FDI in the first half of the year) 6 Nearly 2,700 French subsidiaries in Africa 7 Foreign direct investments FDI has exceeded the $1,200 billion mark in 2010 next to 1,114 in 2009 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 références page 198 How to recruit effectively to Africa! - Recruitment channels
  • 9. Demographic Demographic Africa’s population is one billion 9 Africa’s population exceeded the one billion Canada had 300 000 African migrants on its terri- mark in 2009 25 tory in 2001 10 The African continent is still under populated The number of African graduates in Canada in with 20% of the world’s landmass and 13% of 2007 was estimated at 10,000 11 its population 26 With 44% of its population aged under 15 in 2006, sub-Saharan African is undoubtedly the youngest of the world 12 Socio-cultural Socio-cultural People of African descent are more likely than the The level of education in Africa is still low 27 general population to have obtained a University degree. In 2001, 15% of Africans aged 15 and Social inequalities in Africa are very high 28 older were University graduates compared to 15% 300,000 African professionals live outside of in the general population 13 Africa 29 Heighten clash of generations in Africa 30 Lack of solidarity (somewhat probing tribalism) Technology Technologiques The rate of mobile Web users has exploded in The lack of infrastructure is an obstacle to inter- Africa nal trade development in Africa 31 350 million Africans had a mobile phone in 2009 Africa is champion in mobile payment « The mobile Web is critical in the region where mobile phone penetration is substantially higher than PC penetration. The widespread availability of mobile phones means the mobile Web can reach tens of millions more than the wired Web » 17 Ecological E-recruitment reduces the use of papers 18African economic juncture continues to follow an upward phase. To maintain its course, it is essential thatgovernments support the emergence of strong institutions. Some countries are more at risk from politicalstability (Côte d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Tunisia, Egypt, etc.). Regarding human resources planning, a great needof vacancies is to be filled, and the recruitment channel that seems to represent the future in terms of recruit-ment rate is mobile phone. 9 Practical guide to effective recruitment to Africa.
  • 10. Some useful refer- STEP 3 ences: Summary of recruitment To learn more about Africa: channels The Africa Growth and Opportunity Act: African Development Bank: Targeted outcomes Canadian Council on Africa: http://ccaf- Synergistic optimization of internal and external recruit- ment channels in accordance with the hiring goals of the The African Union: organization ; Increase opportunities to meet with African job seekers ; World Bank Group: Increase the database of CVs from African candidates to complete the hiring process. World Economic Forum: http://www. Relief Web: Radio France Internationale: www.english. How to recruit effectively to Africa! - Recruitment channels
  • 11. Professional rela- Employees are key ven- Can have adverse Develop reward systemstionship: dors in your organization consequences on the attractive to employees (con-People already person who recom- tests, remuneration in kind, Can reduce steps in theemployed in the mended the appointed progressive cash) recruitment processorganization if he is ineffective Allows you to recruit Organizational culture potential future employees can be sterilized if whom by “acquaintance” the candidate hired is share the same values as mimetically similar to your employees existing employees. The appointed has valu- able information from the appointer. Key information they could not get through another channel of recruit- ment. In some situations when the recruitment was suc- cessful, the three parties win: 1) The appointed finds a job, 2) The ap- pointer gets a bonus, 3) the organization hires the candidate by mobilizing the fewest resources pos- sible.Post in-house of- Encourages current em- Spread the news in thefers ployees to apply for a po- company’s social networks sition within the company. (Facebook, LinkedIn, Viadeo, Candidates already know Twitter etc.), on the bulletin the cultural organization. board etc. Low costs Promotes the flow of of- fers in professional and personal networks. The employee may get paid for the appointed candi- date; the company hires a candidate competent and reliable who in return gets a job 11 Practical guide to effective recruitment to Africa.
  • 12. Company website Allows the company to explore more widely the labor market, without taking the posting out of the context in which the employment is offered. The websites can not only reduce routing costs of unsolicited applications, but also their treatment. Internet allows for a screening of applications by relying on some benchmarks matching Site d’emploi Internet Job posting cost is low. (job board) Allows you to provide more information in the job content Allows company description in ads. Access to CVs (resumes) is a means to look after candidates who may match positions that organiza- tions seek to fill without going so far in a profile description or post of an ad. Access to CVs data- Allows building a database of candidates for future vacancies especially in a market in growth phase base (resumes) (main users: agencies, multinationals, etc.) Allows confidential recruitment without competition knowing Access to CVs (resumes) is a means to look after candidates who may match positions that organiza- tions seek to fill without going so far in a profile description or post of an ad. Post in newspapers Can reach locally and efficiently the lowest social classes in Africa Can communicate on its activities by advertising Associations, com- Can reach a specific pool of candidates munity groups, profes- sional12 How to recruit effectively to Africa! - Recruitment channels
  • 13. Costs may be high for optimizing the website on search Include African candidates within your company documents engines (career section) Invest in SEO campaigns (Ad words) to attract qualified candi-t. dates. The high volume of applications generated has the effect Advertise in online job sites of “drowning” the “right” candidates within electronic files, Examples of job sites causing them to develop alternative strategies to be “res- cued” (Neuville, 2001) http://www.affutjob.comza- Provides databases of CVs from job sites mentioned aboveza- Newspaper ads have the disadvantage of being short- Identify media viewed by African immigrants for job postings. lived, as they can be disposed of with the paper at the end Examples of Pan-African medias of the day. Jeune Afrique, New African Magazine, BBC focus on Africa, etc. Establish contact with African Diaspora associations, programs or support groups for immigrants Examples The Nigerians in Diaspora Organization (NIDO), The Associa- tion of Cameroonians in Canada, The Algerian Cultural Centre of Montreal, etc. Immigrants aid programs : Emploi Quebec PRIIME program, Program from Interconnexion You now have a comprehensive and clear enough idea of the benefits and limits of different channels and re- sources to use during your recruitment to the African market. Below, we present a few cases of figures that will help you better identify situations in which to use such channel instead of another. 13 Practical guide to effective recruitment to Africa.
  • 14. To facilitate a little more the choice of recruitment channels, here are some indi- cators for adequate operating of your recruitment channels: Intermediaries and ads are widely used in the following conditions of recruitments4: Prior to writing job descriptions: the public is the first intermediary in the channel of recruitment. A large number of applications are reviewed: when more than ten applications are reviewed, ads are the first source of recruitment. When conducting many interviews with the successful applicant (apart from the exceptional case of recruitment through acting agencies, which do not require interviews) ; When the length of the recruitment process is over a week or a month. Ads are the primary source of recruitment when recruitment is over a month. Closely behind are other intermediaries and agencies. When external costs are not void and internal cost are significant in terms of length. This is especially applies to recruitment by « other intermediaries » and ads. When problems are identified. Recruitment through contacts, re-employment or unsolicited applications is over-represented when5 : Recruitment does not result in the written description of the post to be filled. Recruitment through contacts is caus- ing a third of these recruitments. Few applications are reviewed, limiting in the process competition among candidates. The candidate is already known before the start of recruitment. This is less true with unsolicited applications which often lead to the recruitment of an unknown candidate. The number of interviews with the hired candidate is limited. Rehiring is particularly over-represented when the can- didate doesn’t pass any interview. The entire process is often very short No external cost is generated Internal costs are limited in length Recruitments are declared to be « problems free », except for recruitments through contacts which are over repre- sented among very difficult recruitments. Some difficulties may undermine the ability of organizations to fill their vacancies; although we have discussed about it previously, we will place a greater emphasis on some of them. Here’s a non exhaustive presentation of three categories of recruitment difficulties in Africa: We have identified in “Step 2 Environment Analysis” what were the opportunities and threats inherent in the African market. We will demonstrate in the following spreadsheet the impact of certain opportunities (facilita- tors) and threats (challenges) on organizations’ ability to fill their vacancies and on their influence in the choice of recruitment channels. 4 Translated from Bessy, C., Marchal, E. (2007). L’usage des canaux de recrutement par les entreprises. n°89. 5 Translated from Bessy, C., Marchal, E. (2007). L’usage des canaux de recrutement par les entreprises.14 How to recruit effectively to Africa! - Recruitment channels
  • 15. RECRUITMENT DIFFICULTIES Related to cul- Almost 95% of young Creates a problem of Target recruitment to the environment Difficulties related ture Gabonese want to be of- matching supply and de- channels with heavy ficials mand, resulting in a lack traffic: in order of of availability of quality importance, online labor job site, TV, Radio, Reduces the effective- job fair, etc. ness of professional and Improve reward personal relationships programs recruitment channel because the information is not transmitted to the greatest number. Related to highly Shortage of manpower : Creates a problem of Target recruitment Difficulties related to skilled jobs quality labor availability. channels with heavy Morocco’s manpower The pool of candidates is traffic: in order of shortage in the banking employment very limited. importance, online sector in 2007 job site, TV, Radio, Lack of skilled labor in job fair, etc. South Africa in the areas of agriculture, mining, Develop local training and especially energy programs and transportRECRUITMENT FACILITATORS Related to tech- 350 million Africans had a Creates a terrific op- Create mobile applications for nology mobile phone in 2009 portunity to reach all recruitment. candidates. Create a web mobile site for the company Related to politic Develop Pan-African Creates an opening for Target recruitment channels with and economy market easier movement of heavy Pan-African traffic: Televi- people sion, Radio, etc.Now that you are aware of the methodology to effectively choose your sources of recruitment: 1) Diagnostic, 2)Environment analyst (opportunities/threats and difficulties/facilitators), 3) Recruitment channels summary (ad-vantages/limits and options to exploit), you are set for the final stage: 4) Case study. 15 Practical guide to effective recruitment to Africa.
  • 16. STEP 4 CASE STUDY July 2011, Turcotte Energy, a Quebec company specialized in exploration and engineering services has just landed a major contract valued at $ 200 million. This contract covers the installation of pipelines and production systems at 900 and 1200 meters deep at the offshore of Kole Cameroon. To carry out this contract, the Cameroonian government has demanded that Turcotte Energy agrees to hire at least 40% of Cameroonians, both in senior and operating positions. According to you what types of channels should be used in priority to join the pool of Cameroonian candidates for senior positions? Why? What are the opportunities and threats in the country where the position needs to be filled (eco- nomic, technological, etc.)? answer Is the population more homoge- neous or heterogeneous? answer Is the population largely edu- cated or not? answer What is the role in the position to fill? answer16 How to recruit effectively to Africa! - Recruitment channels
  • 17. Does the position require spe-cialization or not?answerFor how long is the job offered?answerIs it a full time position?answerDo you need to fill several posi-tions at the same time?answerHow much time do I have to fillthe position?answerIs it a new position?answer 17 Practical guide to effective recruitment to Africa.
  • 18. WARNING We emphasize the need for periodic evaluation of the entire process to measure the effectiveness of different channels you have selected. To do so, it is crucial that you develop performance indicators i.e.: the amount of CVs received, the effective rate of hir- ing, etc. You can also use as a relevant indicator the questionnaire that you completed at the beginning of the guide. CONCLUSION The concern for efficiency in talent recruitment and a desire to act ethically with its environment are the two concerns that organizations operating in Africa must prioritize. This guide was designed, in line with these re- quirements, so that organizations and recruited talents could all evolve in harmony in the interest of Africa. Thank you for completing our guide, How to effectively recruit to Africa! Recruitment channels. We look for- ward to our next appointment (pre-screening, selection, etc.).18 How to recruit effectively to Africa! - Recruitment channels
  • 19. BIBLIOGRAPHYAutor D-H. (2001), « Wiring the Labor Market », Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol.15, n°1, pp. 25-40.Bessy, C., Marchal, E. (2007). L’usage des canaux de recrutement par les entreprises.Fondeur Y., Tuchszirer C. (2005), Internet et les intermédiaires du marché du travail, Rapport final, IRES.Genevois A-S. (2011), Spécificités et performances des canaux de recrutement, Les Cahiers du Ceps/InsteadKhun P., Skuterud M. (2004), « Internet Job Search and Unemployment Durations », The American Economic Review, vol.94, n°1, pp.208-232.Neuville J-P. (2001), « Les bons “tuyaux” du marché de l’emploi. Internet peut-il faire de “l’économie de la qualité” un marché », Soci-ologie du travail, n°43, pp. 349-368.çaise-dans-les-pays-africains-de-la-zone-franc/4786/’image-du-canada-en-afrique-doit-etre-restauree-selon-l-universitaire-politologue-canadien-d’origine-senegal-aise-aziz-fall/ 19 Practical guide to effective recruitment to Africa.