Country presentation   joint taskforce meeting - sierra leone
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Country presentation   joint taskforce meeting - sierra leone Country presentation joint taskforce meeting - sierra leone Presentation Transcript

  • COUNTRY PRESENTATION SIERRA LEONE BAGGIE, I. and GEVAO, S. M. B. 1
  • IntroductionSierra Leone is situated on the west coast of Africa.It has an area of 72,325 Km2, with a mean population density of 68.8 persons km2.It lies between latitudes 6°55N and 10°00N (North to South), and from East to West between longitudes 10°14W and 13°17W. 2
  • Climate• Sierra Leone is a tropical country with temperatures averaging 800F (260C).• There are two seasons: 1) Dry Season -- November to April. 2) Wet season -- May to October This period is characterized by heavy rains leading to high erosion and leaching of the top soil. Hence soils in Sierra Leone are generally poor. 3
  • • A dry north-easterly wind called harmattan blow at intervals during December to February, accompanied by fine dust from the Sahara desert. 4
  • VegetationThere are two types of forest in Sierra Leone viz- tropical moist evergreen forest and moist semi-deciduous forest.The tropical moist evergreen forest occurs where relative humidity is high, annual rain fall is greater than 2500 mm, and the dry season is not longer than three months. 5
  • Agricultural population Sierra Leoneans has a population 4,976, 871, with an annual population growth rate of about 1.9%. More than 2/3 of the total population are either directly or indirectly involved in agriculture. Only 15% of its arable land is currently being cultivated, because farming engages mostly resource-poor people who are affected by labour, resource and input constraint. 6
  • Conclusively, the declining soil fertility, high weed competition, pest and disease damage, high post harvest losses, small farm holdings (usually between 0.4 to 1.0 hectare), lack of funds, the overdependence on the use of crude tools and the use of low yielding rice varieties are among the core constraints faced by rice farmers. 7
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  • UPLANDS Yields in uplands are comparatively low ranging between 0.7 to 2.0 tons per ha. The cropping system in the uplands involves the typical bush fallow shifting cultivation and as mixed cropping. The rainfall is mono-modal. This can cause some amount of water stress for long duration rice crops.. 9
  •  There are several problems both biotic and abiotic including weed, diseases like blasts and pests like armyworms, weevils and birds contribute to the poor yield in the uplands.The Inland Valley SwampThe inland valley swamps (IVS) occur in low- lying areas, often depressions and valley bottoms between adjacent valleys. 10
  • They are perennial or seasonal type. The IVS are found in every part of Sierra Leone. Traditional paddy yields in this ecology is between 1.4 to 1.9 metric tons per ha but potential yields are between 3 to 4 metric tonnes in improved IVS. Problems include limited water management, low fertility levels, iron and aluminum toxicity 11
  • Mangrove EcologyMangrove swamps are inundated by tidal waves twice daily. Salinity, weeds and crabs poses serious problems. Farmers plant relatively older seedlings and use more seedlings per hill, a measure to crab damage. The dominant grass species in the mangrove ecology, Paspalum vaginatum (locally called Kere Kere) has robust rhizome roots making ploughing a difficult task.The (1)Tidal mangrove swamps and (2)Associated mangrove swamps. 12
  • Tidal Mangrove Swamps Tidal mangrove swamps are areas which experience tidal movement of sea water twice daily. Based on the length of the salt free period, tidal mangroves are classified in to three categories. Category 1: Mangrove that have a “salt free” period of less than four month. These swamps are located nearer to the sea coast. Category 2: Mangrove areas under tidal flow but the "salt-free" period can last longer, i.e., from four to six months. Category 3: Areas which are subjected to tidal flow for most of the year, but with a "salt-free" period of more than 6 months. 13
  • Associated Mangrove Swamps They are located between the tidal swamp and the upland. They are not subject to tidal floods but get submerged with up to 20cm depth of water received as direct rainfall, runoff and seepage. They are characterized by excessive grass and sedge weeds with fewer broad leaved ones (Agyen-Sampong et al., 1986). 14
  • Boliland Bolilands are vast saucer-shaped and poorly drained depressions lying between rivers. Bolilands are generally low in cation exchange capacity and organic content and consist mainly of heavy clay or silt. Yields in this ecology are generally low – about 1 ton per ha. Rice is cultivated in the bolilands once a year. 15
  • Riverain GrasslandThe riverain grasslands are found mainly in the south of the country (around the Sewa and Wanjei rivers). These are the deep water terrain which carries standing water from 0.5m - 3.0m during the growing season. They could be highly productive with a yield of between 2 to 3 tons per ha. However, proper agronomic management, pesticide and no fertilizer application are some of the problems. 16
  • NATIONAL RICE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (NRDS)GOAL: To lay out a framework for significant increases in rice production in order to contribute to the improvement of food security and economic development in Sierra Leone.SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1) Ensure an increase in the sustainable productivity and production of rice. 2) Promote appropriate post harvest handling, processing and marketing of rice 3) Develop appropriate infrastructure for rice production and marketing 4) Improve the capacity of stakeholders and institutions involved in rice sector 17
  • EXPECTED OUTPUTSIncreased productivity per unit area - 4 tons per hectareIncreased area under cultivation to 1million hectares.Quality processed rice available in the local market.Crop production intensified. 18
  • Current Activities under CARDProposed ‘Africa Network for AgriculturalMechanization’Issues to be tackled: These include: Limited access of mechanization to smallholder rice growing farmers. Limited availability of affordable machineries for smallholder rice farmers. Inadequate trained manpower in maintenance and fabrication of agricultural machineries Limited knowledge of farmers in the use, and basic maintenance of farm machineries. 19
  • SLARI core functions1. Agricultural Research2. Capacity Strengthening3. Information and Knowledge4. Advocacy 20
  • SLARI Staffing Capacity RARC- Rokupr Agricultural Research Centre Research Coordinator /Soil 1Scientist Senior Research Officer 4/Agronomists Research Officer 13 Farm Manager 1 Research Assistants 3 Senior Fld. Superintendent 8 Assistant Farm Manager 1 Field Superintendent 2 Field Technicians 11 Senior Fld. Assistant 10 Field Assistant 7 Field Apprentice 13 Works Service Employee 51 21
  • Agronomic activitiesThe leguminous trees, Cassia siamea and Gliricidia sepium produced significantly higher leaf biomass than Albizia lebbeck in alley cropping with rice in the upland. Biomass from G. sepium alley gave the highest contribution to soil nitrogen. Broadcasting Sesbania rostrata at 10 g m-2 and incorporating the biomass after 3 - 4 weeks in the inland valley/mangrove associated swamp resulted in rice grain yield equivalent to the application of 20 kg N ha-1. 22
  • The weed species Imperata cylindrica, Oryzalongistaminata and Ischaemum rugosum wereidentified as possible host to the Rice YellowMottle Virus (RMYV). Nematode infestation of seed rice was higher intidal mangrove swamps than in the associatedswamps.One handweeding at 6 weeks after plantingfollowed by a single fertilizer application gave thebest option for increasing rice grain yield inupland, inland valley and mangrove swamps. 23
  • In the upland, genotypic differences in response to N at 80 kg N/ha as Urea and Gliricidia sepium were evaluated using 15N methodology. Regardless of rice genotype, higher grain and straw yields were obtained with organic fertilizer than with inorganic fertilizer. 24
  • Varietal Screening for Resistance to ARGM: 100 rice cultivars/varieties were screened for resistance to ARGM in a ‘hot spot’ associated mangrove swamp at Rokupr. The rice varieties exhibited differential reactions to ARGM infestation ranging from 10% - 68% tiller infestations. Varieties showing better tolerance to ARGM included:• TOX 3552 – 64-1-1-3, TN 1/BD 83-11, TN 1/BD 83-1, TOX 3440-16-3-1-1-2-1 25
  • Varietal Screening for Resistance/Tolerance to Crab Damage: Crabs continue to be a major pest problem in the tidal mangrove swamp ecology. On hundred and three rice cultivars/varieties and advanced breeding lines were evaluated at Rokupr. Crab damage was determined as percentage number of hills or tillers/hill damaged at 5, 10 and 30 DAT. No fertilizer was applied. 26
  • Uniform Blast Nursery (UBN): 39 selections from the previous year’s blast screening and 267 mangrove rice segregating populations were re-tested at 2 locations Rokupr and Kychom. The disease pressure at Kychom was low but adequate at Rokupr. Highly resistant lines included:• B448-50-2-2-5-1-1, ECIA 136-2-2-1-4, IR 29723-143-3-1, ROHYB 4-WAR-1-3-B-2 27
  • Effect of Sowing Dates on Grain Yield of NERICA Upland Rice Varieties and ROK 16. Results indicate that early planting is good. Results suggest general increase in yield due to PK manure but to date no confirm data because laboratory results. (Up to date results) 28
  • Mechanical Cultivation Potential and Policy• Sierra Leone is working hard to attain food security.• In order to reach such a noble good, mechanical cultivation is seen as a significant strategy among others.• Extensive grasslands and flood plains have been major attractions for mechanical cultivation of rice and other field crops in Sierra Leone.• It is estimated that potential land for large scale mechanical cultivation is in excess of 0.5 million hectares. 29
  • Mechanical Cultivation Potential and Policy (cont’d)• The use of farm power with emphasis on tractor remains the policy of Government to increase food and agricultural production particularly in view of the urgent need to attain food security.• Taking into account the previous experience and present economic situation, Government of Sierra Leone made it a policy in 2006 to provide the services of tractors to farmers free of cost with beneficiaries being responsible for operational expenses. The policy also stressed that management must be on partnership basis.• Current policy: The Government has recently introduced a Machinery Hire Purchase Scheme. 30
  • Current Farm Power Used for Crop Production• Farm power shortage at the farm level is one of the major and perhaps the most critical constraint to agricultural production and productivity in Sierra Leone .• Over 80% of the total power required on the farm for crop production and post-production operations is provided by human labour using hand tool technology (HTT).• Less than 1% is provided by draught animal power (DAP) technology (animal traction).• The rest is contributed by tractor mechanization technology (TMT) or tractorization as well as a combination of HTT and TMT. 31
  • Factors Responsible for the failure of Previous Mechanical Cultivation Scheme• Mechanical cultivation has been on adhoc basis with hardly any clear policy• Inadequate and untimely logistical support (ie. Untimely deployment of machinery)• There is a general shortage of trained tractor operators and mechanics• Tractors were brought into the country without adequate spares and implements 32
  • Factors Responsible for the failure of Previous Mechanical Cultivation Scheme• Ineffective maintenance schedules• Importation of wrong types of machines• Ineffective use of agricultural machinery and equipment• Lack of an environment that encourages participation by the private sector• Almost all the machinery used for tillage purposes are manufactured outside of this sub- region and have to be imported, requiring large outlays of the limited foreign exchange 33
  • Factors Responsible for the failure of Previous Mechanical Cultivation Scheme• The insignificant number of commercial farmers who can afford to buy farm machines from machinery importers and service providers• The lack of credit facilities for the small-scale farmers mainly because the Commercial Banks do not accept the traditional land ownership as collateral for granting farm loans• The lack of adequately workshops to provide servicing facilities for the machinery• There are very few adequately trained and skilled machine operators and mechanics in the country 34
  • Strategies for Improving Farm Mechanisation in Sierra LeoneSHORT TERM INTERVENTIONS• Provide adequate farm machinery services, such as tractors and harvesters.• Rehabilitate existing farm machinery workshops in the country.• Conduct feasibility study into full-scale mechanization of rice production in Sierra Leone• Prevent or reduce postharvest losses to the minimum 35
  • Strategies for Improving Farm Mechanisation in Sierra LeoneMEDIUM AND LONG-TERM INTERVENTIONS• Conduct feasibility studies for full-scale mechanization in specific locations• Establish country-wide well-equipped workshops for maintenance of machines• Train operators and mechanics• Establish specialized training facilities for machine operators and mechanics• Establish crop processing centers• Introduce Machinery Hire Purchase scheme to promote commercialization. 36
  • POSTHARVEST TECHNOLOGY•In the traditional set-up, post harvest technologymay not be new but the systems used areinefficient and would need improvement.•Post harvest losses account for up to 25 per centof losses on agricultural production in Sierra Leone.• A reduction of these losses could substantiallyincrease food production in the country without anincrease in the acreages cultivated. 37
  • POSTHARVEST TECHNOLOGY(cont’d)The primary constraints are:•Sierra Leone has a small nucleus of wellqualified and trained manpower resources inthe pos-harvest sub-sector.•Funding, and•Lack of suitable post-harvest technologies toextend to the farmers which are technically,socially and economically sustainable. 38
  • Distribution of postharvest losses by methods and operationOperation Traditional Improved Difference (%) (%) (%)Reaping 4.99 4.25 0.74Threshing 6.18 1.39 4.79Drying 6.62 3.87 2.75Milling 7.97 4.73 3.24 Total 25.76 14.24 11.52 39Source: Agric. Sector Master Plan of Sierra Leone (1994)
  • IMPORTANCE OF CROP PROCESSING•Brings higher income to farmers by the sale ofbetter quality products.•Reduces losses during harvest and storage.•Facilitates food distribution and minimizes foodtransportation costs.•Generates better employment opportunities inrural areas which minimize the migration of youthsto urban centers. 40
  • IMPORTANCE OF CROP PROCESSING (cont’d)•Improves the diet of the population by producinggood quality farm products.•Contributes to the gross national product bymaking farm products more competitive for theexport market and thereby attracting more foreignexchange•Raises the economic value of livestock enterprisesby providing adequate and improved animal feeds. 41
  • Distribution of Threshing Losses by Methods Threshing Traditional Improved (%) Method (%)Foot trampling 5.77 -Stick threshing 8.14 -IRRI thresher - 1.47 Average 6.95Source: Agric. Sector Master Plan of Sierra Leone (1994) 42
  • Distribution of Milling Recovery by MethodType of Mill Milling Output (%) Input Capacity Raw Parboiled Average (kg/hr)Laboratory 70.7 71.0 70.9 0.2 MillHand 65.5 67.5 66.5 6.5 PoundingEngleberg 60.0 65.3 62.7 234.7 MillRubber Roll 64.7 70.3 67.5 351.8 MillSource: Agric. Sector Master Plan of Sierra Leone (1994) 43
  • Studies Undertaken in the Area of Rice Postharvest Engineering (cont’d)No. Name of PROGRAMME Research Theme Student1. MORIBA, M.Sc in Milling Recovery by Hand Pounding of Paddy Rice as Francis Postharvest Influenced by Parboiling Methods in Sierra Leone (2008) Technology2. MARRAH, B.Sc (Hons) A Comparison of Some Physical Properties of Rice Grains of Moham Agriculture Upland Nerica Lines ed (2010)3. LEIGH, B.Sc (Hons) An Assessment of the Quality of Rice Grains Marketed in Alpha Agriculture Sierra Leone Umaru (2010)4. JALLOH, B.Sc (Hons) The Influence of Grain Type on the Storage Quality of Milled Sheku Agriculture Rice Sold in Urban Markets of Sierra Leone (2011)5. SCOTT- B.Sc (Hons) The Effects of Parboiling Method on the Organoleptic Quality MANG NFT of Some Rice Varieties in Sierra Leone A, Jennifer 44
  • Studies Undertaken in the Area of Rice Postharvest EngineeringNo. Name of PROGRAMM Research Theme Student E1. BEAH, J. B.Sc A Comparative Study of the different Methods of Parboiling (1988) Agriculture Paddy with Special Reference to the Milling Quality General2. CONTEH, B.Sc Assessing the Milling Recoveries of Fifteen Rice Varieties A.B.S. Agriculture of the Rice Research Station, Rokupr (1993) General3. MORRAY, B.Sc Assessing the Effectiveness of the Hand-Pounding Method Abdul Agriculture of Milling Rice Using Three Different Pestle Ends (1996) General (Plain wood, Iron and Rubber) 45
  • CONCLUSIONS• Quantification of losses is affected by a number of variables: mixed varieties, lodging, crop maturity, field conditions, family labour or hired labour, climatic conditions at harvest, etc.• Domestic food availability could be significantly increased if the level of postharvest losses are reduced.• Accurate assessment of postharvest losses requires considerable financial, human and transport resources. 46
  • RECOMMENDATIONSTo reduce post-harvest losses in Sierra Leone:•Field losses at harvest, field drying, threshing,winnowing and drying after harvest need to beestimated.•Improved storage systems need to beintroduced and tested at the village level.•Improved methods of grain handling need tobe evaluated at the village level. 47
  • RECOMMENDATIONS (cont’d)•Institutions for the promotion of post harvesttechnology need to be established.•The causes of and methods of controlling lossesshould be given attention and publicity.•Reduction of postharvest losses must, in manycases, be tackled directly or as a by-product ofother interventions.•Farmer and staff training should e promoted. 48
  • THANK YOU 49