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Era 06

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Global Convergence

Global Convergence

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  • 1. 1
  • 2. Big Era SixThe Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. 1
  • 3. The Great Global Convergence Today Era 3 Era 4 Era 5 Era 6 7 8 9 2
  • 4. The Great Global ConvergenceWelcome Big Era Six to lasted from Big Era 1400 to 1800 Six! CE. Today Era 3 Era 4 Era 5 Era 6 7 8 9 2
  • 5. What was global convergence? 3
  • 6. What was global convergence? Converge means to Change accelerated come when people, together. resources, and ideas from the whole world came together. That made the world more like we know it today—more modern! Accelerate means to speed up. 3
  • 7. 4
  • 8. Exchanges that began in Afroeurasia during Big Era Fivecontinued to bring about change. 4
  • 9. Exchanges that began in Afroeurasia during Big Era Fivecontinued to bring about change. • Scholars translated books, taught others, and worked to gain knowledge. 4
  • 10. Exchanges that began in Afroeurasia during Big Era Fivecontinued to bring about change. • Scholars translated books, taught others, and worked to gain knowledge. • Trade introduced people to new products, increasing the demand for luxuries. 4
  • 11. Exchanges that began in Afroeurasia during Big Era Fivecontinued to bring about change. • Scholars translated books, taught others, and worked to gain knowledge. • Trade introduced people to new products, increasing the demand for luxuries. • Money moved across countryside and continents in exchange for goods. 4
  • 12. Exchanges that began in Afroeurasia during Big Era Fivecontinued to bring about change. • Scholars translated books, taught others, and worked to gain knowledge. • Trade introduced people to new products, increasing the demand for luxuries. • Money moved across countryside and continents in exchange for goods. • Religious ideas were hotly debated, and missionaries spread religions to new lands. 4
  • 13. Exchanges that began in Afroeurasia during Big Era Fivecontinued to bring about change. • Scholars translated books, taught others, and worked to gain knowledge. • Trade introduced people to new products, increasing the demand for luxuries. • Money moved across countryside and continents in exchange for goods. • Religious ideas were hotly debated, and missionaries spread religions to new lands. • Ruling groups debated laws, and military struggles continued. 4
  • 14. Sciences, philosophy, and the arts flowered in Europe after 1400. “Knowledge of the Ancients” entered Europe during the 12th century. Its origins were Greek, Arabic, Chinese, and Indian. It contained all Europeans natural sciences, math, had some applied sciences, and catching philosophy. up to do. Scholars Scholars flocked to represented Spain in the the heritage 1100s to translate of ancient books from and eastern Arabic to knowledge Latin. as a “giant.” 5
  • 15. Rise of European Universities 6
  • 16. Rise of European UniversitiesDemand for educationstimulated the growthof Europeanuniversities in majortowns. These universities introduced new knowledge into the curriculum. 6
  • 17. Printing technology spread from China to Europe. European and Korean artisans invented printingwith moveable metal type at about the same time. 7
  • 18. Printing technology spread from China to Europe. European and Korean artisans invented printingwith moveable metal type at about the same time. • Gutenberg’s printing press with moveable type could reproduce pages quickly, adding woodcut illustrations. • By the time he invented his printing press, papermaking had spread to Europe. • In the first century of printing, thousands of books were sold and added to Europe’s growing libraries. 7
  • 19. Religious institutions and ideas changed with the times • Martin Luther challenged the Catholic Church’s authority and brought on the Protestant Reformation after 1517. He translated the Bible into German. • Political leaders took sides, spawning European religious and national conflicts that lasted more than a century—to the mid-1600s.• Neo-Confucian doctrines were challenged by Wang Yangming (1472-1529) and his followers, emphasizing rational thought and reflection. • International religious institutions developed, such as Sufi orders in Islam, Catholic and Protestant missionary orders in Christianity, and Muslim reformist groups in Africa and Arabia. 8
  • 20. Asian commercial and political voyages on the seasIndian Ocean traderoutes attractedmerchants as they hadfor centuries. Zheng He, Admiral of the Ming fleet, made seven voyages around the Indian Ocean. Ottoman naval vessels patrolled the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, and the Indian Ocean. 9
  • 21. Technologies from Afroeurasia led to newEuropean ship designs in the 15th century. ArabChinese lateen sailcompass Chinese Muslim portolan sternpost charts and maps rudder 10
  • 22. Technologies from Afroeurasia led to newEuropean ship designs in the 15th century. ArabChinese lateen sailcompass Chinese Muslim portolan sternpost charts and maps rudder 10
  • 23. After 1415, European mariners made voyages across the seas toward east and west. By 1519, Spanish ships had circumnavigated the globe.Others set out in search of wealth and adventure. 11
  • 24. Vasco da Columbus Gama 1492 1498 Magellan 1519 After 1415, European mariners made voyages across the seas toward east and west. By 1519, Spanish ships had circumnavigated the globe.Others set out in search of wealth and adventure. 11
  • 25. Spanish conquistadors ended Aztec and Inca rule and claimed their lands inMesoamerica and Andean South America. Aztec MayanEmpire States Inca Empire 12
  • 26. Spanish conquistadors ended Aztec and Inca rule and claimed their lands inMesoamerica and Andean South America. In 1492, two major empires in the Americas, the Aztecs and Aztec the Inca, ruled MayanEmpire States many people. Inca Empire 12
  • 27. Global convergence sped up the dynamic of world change. From 1400 to 1800 the rate of change accelerated more rapidly in many areas of human activity. 13
  • 28. Global convergence sped up the dynamic of world change. From 1400 to 1800 the rate of change accelerated more rapidly in many areas of human Population & Ideas & activity. Environment Inventions Trade & States & Manufacturing Empires 13
  • 29. The GreatPopulation &Environment Dying 14
  • 30. The GreatPopulation &Environment Dying The Great Dying was caused by smallpox and other disease germs carried by the conquerors. Native Americans had no immunity to these diseases. By some accounts, the population of the Americas fell from 22 million in 1500 to less than 1 million in 1640. 14
  • 31. Europeans brought African slaves across the South Atlantic to labor in the colonies. The Atlantic slave trade grew from about 1,000 per year in the early 1500s to nearly 80,000 per year at the end of the 1700s.Population &Environment 15
  • 32. 16
  • 33. The Columbian ExchangePopulation &Environment Plants, animals, and micro-organisms of Afroeurasia were exchanged with those of the Americas across the oceans. 17
  • 34. The Columbian ExchangePopulation &Environment Plants, animals, and micro-organisms of Afroeurasia were exchanged with those of the Americas across the oceans. 17
  • 35. The Columbian ExchangePopulation &Environment 18
  • 36. The Columbian ExchangePopulation &Environment New crops like potatoes and beans spread and improved nutrition worldwide. Luxury products like coffee, chocolate, tea, tobacco, and spices meant new cultural habits for those with money to spend. 18
  • 37. Environmental changes resulted from introducing new speciesPopulation &Environment Caribbean sugar plantation 1600s Plains woman hunting buffalo 1800s 19
  • 38. Environmental changes resulted from introducing new speciesPopulation &Environment Global cash crops were grown on large plantations with slave labor. Caribbean sugar plantation 1600s Livestock introduced to the Americas changed indigenous groups’ ways of life. Plains woman hunting buffalo 1800s 19
  • 39. Deforestation intensified with growth in mining, shipbuilding, and plantation agriculture.Population &Environment 20
  • 40. Deforestation intensified with growth in mining, shipbuilding, and plantation agriculture.Population &Environment mining boiling sugar 20
  • 41. World population grew a lot during Big Era Six Population & Environmentopulation change in millions, 1400-1800 CE 400 300 China 200 India 100 Europe Sub-Saharan Africa 0 Latin America 1400 CE 1600 CE 1800 CE 21
  • 42. World population grew a lot during Big Era Six Population & Environment The number of people in the world increased about Growth differed 2 ½ times between 1400 among world and 1800 CE regions.opulation change in millions, 1400-1800 CE 400 300 China 200 India 100 Europe Sub-Saharan Africa 0 Latin America 1400 CE 1600 CE 1800 CE 21
  • 43. Islam and Christianity spread with empires, trade, andPopulation &Environment migration.• Traders and Sufi orders • Catholic missionaries andspread Islam in Africa and Asia. religious orders followed the• The Ottoman Empire spread of empires in Asia,expanded into eastern Europe, Africa, and the Americas.and Islam spread into theBalkans. • Protestants colonized North 22 America.
  • 44. Printed books carried more and more information. Ideas &Inventions Page numbers, indexing, and other citation systems became common. Sharp, accurate engraved illustrations helped spread innovative inventions rapidly. Scientists shared detailed diagrams to replicate experiments and instruments. Rich illustrations stimulated interest in literacy and learning. 23
  • 45. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler provedthat the earth was not the center of the universe… but the Church opposed the Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition, a painting by Cristiano Banti, 1857 24
  • 46. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler provedthat the earth was not the center of the universe… but the Church opposed the You mean I’m not the center ofeverything?! Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition, a painting by Cristiano Banti, 1857 24
  • 47. Ideas &Inventions 25
  • 48. Maps reflected Ideas & discoveryInventions and colonization. …and helped exchanges of knowledge among people in the world. 25
  • 49. Maritime technologies Ideas &Inventions continued to improve •Mapping world wind patterns and oceanic currents. •Ships were fully rigged with sails for speed and handling. •Ships grew larger & stronger (500 tons in 1450 to 2000 tons by 1590). •The sextant greatly improved navigation at sea. •Cannons and ammunition improved. 26
  • 50. Trade encircled the Trade &Manufacturing 27
  • 51. Trade encircled the Trade &Manufacturing 27
  • 52. Global artistic influences led to new European industries. Trade &Manufacturing Chinese silks and Indian cottons led to building of English and French textile factories. Ottoman and Persian ceramics led to Holland’s Delft stoneware industry. Chinese influence led English manufacturers to try to make “china” after they found the right clay. 28
  • 53. Banking and law served Trade &Manufacturing new demands. 29
  • 54. Banking and law served Trade &Manufacturing new demands. • Accountants learned double-entry bookkeeping with “Arabic” numerals. • Commercial law protected private property and investments. • More efficient bureaucracies and taxation increased the power of the government’s purse. • European monarchs issued charters to colonize overseas. • Jurists experimented with civil and constitutional law. 29
  • 55. States &Empires 30
  • 56. Big Era SixStates &Empires was the Large bureaucratic first age of states in Afroeurasia global used gunpowder and empires. artillery to expand trade and win territory in several parts of Afroeurasia. 30
  • 57. States &Empires 31
  • 58. Gunpowder empires in Asia, Africa, and Europe honed skills inStates & production of artilleryEmpires and handguns. Land and maritime empires battled over control of trade, resources, and territory. Persian, Indian, Turkish, Chinese, Japanese, and European artisans experimented with steel production for weapons. 31
  • 59. States and Empires in 1519 CEStates &Empires 32
  • 60. States and Empires in 1600 CEStates &Empires 33
  • 61. States and Empires in 1714 CEStates &Empires 34
  • 62. States and Empires in 1804 CEStates &Empires 35
  • 63. Monarchs claimed absolute power.States &Empires Philip II Elizabeth I Louis XIV Catherine the Great Spain England France Russia 1556-1598 1558-1603 1643-1715 1762-1796 Süleyman Xizong Shah Abbas JahangirOttoman Empire Ming China Persia India 1520-1566 1620-1627 1587-1629 1605-1627 36
  • 64. Challenges to absolutism came from new elites with ideas about human rights.States &Empires Louis XVI Charles I 1775-1793 Charles I, beheaded in 1649 1625-1649 King George III Rebellion in American 1760-1820 Colonies 1776 French Revolution 1789 37
  • 65. Challenges to absolutism came from new elites with ideas about human rights.States &Empires Louis XVI Charles I 1775-1793 Charles I, beheaded in 1649 1625-1649 King George III Rebellion in American 1760-1820 Colonies 1776 French Revolution 1789 37
  • 66. Summary: global convergence led to accelerating world change. 38
  • 67. Summary: global convergence led to accelerating world change.•Environmental change accelerated with theColumbian Exchange, intensified resourceexploitation, and continuing deforestation. 38
  • 68. Summary: global convergence led to accelerating world change.•Environmental change accelerated with theColumbian Exchange, intensified resourceexploitation, and continuing deforestation.•World population increased owing toimproved nutrition and migration. But Africagained only slowly due to slavery, andnative Americans suffered massivepopulation losses because of Old Worlddisease pathogens. 38
  • 69. Summary: global convergence led to accelerating world change.•Environmental change accelerated with theColumbian Exchange, intensified resourceexploitation, and continuing deforestation.•World population increased owing toimproved nutrition and migration. But Africagained only slowly due to slavery, andnative Americans suffered massivepopulation losses because of Old Worlddisease pathogens.•Science, technology and culturaldevelopment expanded with the invention ofprinting and new knowledge institutions—libraries, universities, and museums. 38
  • 70. Summary: global convergence led to accelerating world change. 39
  • 71. Summary: global convergence led to accelerating world change.•World trade volume increased dramaticallyand began to shift its center from Asia tothe Atlantic region. 39
  • 72. Summary: global convergence led to accelerating world change.•World trade volume increased dramaticallyand began to shift its center from Asia tothe Atlantic region.•States increased their power withgunpowder conquests and new sources ofmercantile wealth. 39
  • 73. Summary: global convergence led to accelerating world change.•World trade volume increased dramaticallyand began to shift its center from Asia tothe Atlantic region.•States increased their power withgunpowder conquests and new sources ofmercantile wealth.•In Europe rising economic elites enjoyedgrowing wealth, which led them tochallenge old landed aristocracies andmonarchs. 39
  • 74. Is Big Era Sixthe Modern World? Mod ernit y 40
  • 75. Is Big Era Sixthe Modern World? Are we there yet? Mod ernit y 40
  • 76. Historians argue whether the world became “modern” in Big Era Six. 41
  • 77. Historians argue whether the world became “modern” in Big Era Six. “Modernity” means advanced, continuous Wait until human development in you see science, technology, Big Era standards of living, and Seven! social organization. Do you think human society was “there yet” in Big Era Six? 41
  • 78. End of Big Era Six 42

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