Chapter 008 special senses

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Chapter 008 special senses

  1. 1. Chapter 8 The special senses Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Figure 8.1 The parts of the ear. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Figure 8.2 The tympanic membrane viewed through an auriscope showing the shadows cast by the malleus and the incus. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Figure 8.3 The auditory ossicles. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Figure 8.4 The inner ear. The membranous labyrinth within the bony labyrinth. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Figure 8.5 A cross-section of the cochlea showing the spiral organ (of Corti). Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Figure 8.6 Passage of sound waves: A. The ear with cochlea uncoiled. B. Summary of transmission. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Figure 8.7 Behaviour of sound waves. A. Difference in frequency but of the same amplitude. B. Difference in amplitude but of the same frequency. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Figure 8.8 Section of the eye. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Figure 8.9 The choroid, ciliary body and iris. Viewed from the front. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Figure 8.10 The lens and suspensory ligament viewed from the front. The iris has been removed. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Figure 8.11 The retina: A. Magnified section. B. Light-sensitive nerve cells: rods and cones. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Figure 8.12 The retina as seen through the pupil with an ophthalmoscope. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Figure 8.13 The optic nerves and their pathways. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Figure 8.14 Refraction: white light broken into the colours of the visible spectrum when passed through a prism. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Figure 8.15 The electromagnetic spectrum. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Figure 8.16 Refraction of light rays passing through a biconvex lens. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Figure 8.17 The shape of the lens: A. Distant vision. B. Near vision. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Figure 8.18 Section of the eye showing the focusing of light rays on the retina. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Figure 8.19 Parts of the visual field − monocular and binocular. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Figure 8.20 The extrinsic muscles of the eye. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Figure 8.21 Section of the eye and its accessory structures. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Figure 8.22 The lacrimal apparatus. Arrows show the direction of the flow of tears. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Figure 8.23 The olfactory structures. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Figure 8.24 An enlarged section of the olfactory apparatus in the nose and on the inferior surface of the cerebrum. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Figure 8.25 Structure of taste buds: A. A section of a papilla. B. A taste bud − greatly magnified. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Figure 8.26 Common refractive errors of the eye and corrective lenses. A. Normal eye. B and C. Farsightedness. D and E. Nearsightedness. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.

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