Chapter 007 nervous system
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Chapter 007 nervous system

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anatomy and physiology

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  • 1. Chapter 7 The nervous system Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Figure 7.1 Functional components of the nervous system. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Figure 7.2 The structure of neurones. (Arrow indicates direction of impulse conduction.) Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 4. Figure 7.3 Nerve fibres: A. Myelinated. B. Non-myelinated. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 5. Figure 7.4 Saltatory conduction of an impulse in a myelinated nerve fibre. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 6. Figure 7.5 Simple propagation of an impulse in a non-myelinated nerve fibre. (Arrows indicate the direction of impulse transmission.) Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 7. Figure 7.6 Functional components of the nervous system. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 8. Figure 7.7 Sensory nerve endings in the skin. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 9. Figure 7.8 Diagram of a synapse. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Figure 7.9 Neurotransmitters at synapses in the peripheral nervous system. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 11. Figure 7.10 Motor unit: A. Longitudinal section. B. Cross-section. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 12. Figure 7.11 Blood− brain barrier. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Figure 7.12 The meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Figure 7.13 The positions of the ventricles of the brain (in yellow) superimposed on its surface. Viewed from the left side. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Figure 7.14 Arrows showing the flow of cerebrospinal fluid. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Figure 7.15 The parts of the central nervous system. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Figure 7.16 The lobes and sulci of the cerebrum. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Figure 7.17 A section of the cerebrum showing some connecting nerve fibres. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 19. Figure 7.18 The cerebrum showing the functional areas. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 20. Figure 7.19 The motor nerve pathways: upper and lower motor neurones. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 21. Figure 7.20 A. The motor homunculus showing how the body is represented in the motor area of the cerebrum. B. The sensory homunculus showing how the body is represented in the sensory area of the cerebrum. (Both A and B are from Penfield W, Rasmussen T 1950 The cerebral cortex of man. Macmillan, New York. © 1950 Macmillan Publishing Co., renewed 1978 Theodore Rasmussen.) Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 22. Figure 7.21 The cerebellum and associated structures. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 23. Figure 7.22 The meninges covering the spinal cord. Each cut away to show the underlying layers. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 24. Figure 7.23 Section of the distal end of the vertebral canal. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 25. Figure 7.24 The spinal cord and spinal nerves. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 26. Figure 7.25 A section of the spinal cord showing nerve roots on one side. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 27. Figure 7.26 One of the sensory nerve pathways from the skin to the cerebrum. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 28. Figure 7.27 A simple reflex arc involving one side only. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 29. Figure 7.28 Transverse section of a peripheral nerve showing the protective coverings. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 30. Figure 7.29 The relationship between sympathetic and mixed spinal nerves. Sympathetic part in green. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 31. Figure 7.30 The meninges covering the spinal cord, spinal nerves and the plexuses they form. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 32. Figure 7.31 The cervical plexus. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 33. Figure 7.32 The brachial plexus. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 34. Figure 7.33 The main nerves of the arm. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 35. Figure 7.34 The distribution and origins of the cutaneous nerves of the arm. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 36. Figure 7.35 The lumbar plexus. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 37. Figure 7.36 Sacral and coccygeal plexuses. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 38. Figure 7.37 The main nerves of the leg. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 39. Figure 7.38 Distribution and origins of the cutaneous nerves of the leg. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 40. Figure 7.39 Segmental distribution of the thoracic cutaneous nerves. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 41. Figure 7.40 The inferior surface of the brain showing the cranial nerves. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 42. Figure 7.41 The cutaneous distribution of the main branches of the right trigeminal nerve. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 43. Figure 7.42 The position of the vagus nerve in the thorax viewed from the right side. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 44. Figure 7.43 The sympathetic outflow, the main structures supplied and the effects of stimulation. Solid red lines − preganglionic fibres; broken lines − postganglionic fibres. There is a right and left lateral chain of ganglia. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 45. Figure 7.44 The parasympathetic outflow, the main structures supplied and the effects of stimulation. Solid blue lines − preganglionic fibres; broken lines − postganglionic fibres. Where there are no broken lines, the postganglionic neurone is in the wall of the structure. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 46. Figure 7.45 Referred pain. Pain perceived to originate from the tissues supplied by the damaged nerve. Y stimulates X and pain is perceived in the shoulder. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 47. Figure 7.46 Regrowth of peripheral nerves following injury. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 48. Figure 7.47 Effects of different types of expanding lesions inside the skull: A. Subdural haematoma. B. Subarachnoid haemorrhage. C. Tumour or intracerebral haemorrhage. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 49. Figure 7.48 Types of haemorrhage causing stroke: A. Intracerebral. B. Subarachnoid. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 50. Figure 7.49 Shuffling gait of Parkinson’s disease. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 51. Figure 7.50 Phenylketonuria: A. Phenylalanine present. B. Phenylalanine absent. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 52. Figure 7.51 Prolapsed intervertebral disc. A. Viewed from the side. B. Viewed from above. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.
  • 53. Figure 7.52 Spina bifida. Copyright © Elsevier Ltd 2005. All rights reserved.