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  • 1. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The teaching is not merely transmitting the subject matter to the learner; it is equally important that the essence of the lesson be understood and imbibed by the learner. To accomplish this purpose the teacher should have a rich background of the lesson and must have a commitment to accomplish the goal for which the subject matter is taught. The general objective of Philippines Education is embodied in the Constitution. It reflects the general ideals and precepts of the culture and embodies provisions for the education of the people’ schools were made responsible for attaining these goals. Article IX section 4 of the Constitution provides that, “all educational institutions shall aim to inculcate love of country, teach the duties of citizenship, and develop moral character, personal discipline and scientific and technological and vocational efficiency. Today, the Constitution has placed emphasis also on the inculcation of love of country and the development of scientific and technological efficiency in line with the objectives of National development. (Panopio, 1978) The essence of the above contexts is the basis of making Philippine History a required subject in the tertiary level. Since the people play a significant role in development, they should possess the necessary qualities to attain the nation’s objectives. Undoubtedly, it is the sector of education which is greatly responsible for this undertaking. Philippine History is concern about the past and present undertaking of Filipinos. It discusses how the Filipino have lived and improved their ways of living. It enlightens the people on how to meet the present problems and some ways of meeting them. Philippine
  • 2. History is very significant in strengthening national consciousness and commitment which is very essential in nation’s building. Moreover, the school should teach the students pride of country and culture. It must develop in the students the desire to serve and contribute to the common welfare. The student must be taught love and loyalty to the country and its people. Background of the Study All agencies are agents of change and channels of improvement. However, education is specially and specifically changes with the function of teaching what society wants in terms of building the moral and ethical standards of the group. The lesson and experience required in the early stages of life are the most important bases of the character and personality of individual Ethics, morality and values have to be taught to the young. (Bustos and Espiritu, 1985) Philippine was influenced by the colonizers and affected by the various aspects specifically the ways people think. At the same time, the country focus a lot of crisis which somehow resulted to the Filipinos distrust and decreasing loyalty to the country. The school system is doing something to cope-up with the problems. Nowadays, schools emphasize the teaching of family values with greater concerned on the values that will develop nationalism. School Curriculum must begin in civics and culture education by developing in the Filipino Child his identity as a Filipino. This study will attempt to determine the relationship of academic performance in Philippine History and National Consciousness of students it the Laguna State Polytechnic University in Siniloan, Laguna. Specifically, it will aim to
  • 3. get the responses of Laguna State Polytechnic University students enrolled in Philippine History subject during the AY 2009-2010. Theoretical Framework A significant theoretical framework will be used on this research study. The Higher- Order Thought Theory according to Rosenthal (1986, 1993, 2005). He asserted a conscious mental state of mine is a state that actually causing on activated belief (generally a non- conscious one) that I have M, and causing it non-inferentially. An account to phenomenal consciousness can be generated by stipulating that the mental state M should be a causal role and/or content of a certain distinctive sort in order to count as an experience, and that M is an experience, it will be phenomenally conscious when suitably targeted. The theory mentioned above will provide the researcher the necessary foundation in her attempt to relate the academic performance in Philippine History to the National Consciousness of the student-respondents. Conceptual Framework The research paradigm illustrated in Figure 1, shows the relationship between the academic performance in Philippine History and National Consciousness of student- respondents. It also shows the relationship of moderating variables which is the student profile as it connected into the dependent and independent variables, the National Consciousness and Academic Performance in Philippine History respectively.
  • 4. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLES National Consciousness Academic Political Aspects Performance in Economic Aspects Philippine Social Aspects History MODERATING VARIABLES Student Profile Age Sex Family Income Parent’s Occupation Figure 1. The Conceptual Model Showing the Functional Relationship of the Independent Variables to Dependent Variables of the study
  • 5. Statement of the Problem The main concern of this study will be to determine the relationship of the academic performance in Philippine History and the National Consciousness of students of the Laguna State Polytechnic University, A.Y. 2009-2010. More specifically, the objectives are: 1. What is the profile of the student-respondents in terms of 1.1 Age; 1.2 Sex; 1.3 Religion; 1.4 Family Income; and 1.5 Parents’ Occupation? 2. What is the performance of the student-respondents in Philippine History subject? 3. What is the level of National Consciousness of the student-respondents? 4. Is there significant difference between academic performance in Philippine History and the Profile of the Student-respondents? 5. Is there significant difference between National Consciousness and the profile of the student-respondents? 6. Is there significant relationship between academic performance in Philippine History and National Consciousness of the student-respondents? Hypotheses The following null hypotheses will be tested: 1. There is significant difference between academic performance in Philippine History and profile of the student-respondents.
  • 6. 2. There is no significant difference between National Consciousness and profile of the student-respondents. 3. There is no significant relationship between academic performance in Philippine History and National Consciousness of the student-respondents. Significance of the Study The result of the study will benefit the following: Students. They will be able to realize the significant role of Philippine History in the Development of National Consciousness. Teachers. They will be aware of their great participations in building nationalistic ideals to student. Insights of the study somehow drive them to apply variations on motivational approaches to effectively achieve the goals of education. Parents. They will be aware of the performance of their children and the respect they give to the country. Principals. This study will give those insights on what school activities to undertake to develop the ideals of nationalism among the students. DepEd. This study may help the department to formulate policies and or programs to strengthen students’ national consciousness and to enhance teaching approaches in history. Researchers. This study will serve as spring board for related researchers. Community. Determining the extent of national consciousness of the students is highly important since they are key players in building the nation’s development.
  • 7. Scope and Limitation This study focused on determining the level of National Consciousness of the student-respondents and its relationship to the academic performance in Philippine History and to their profile in selected tertiary students in Laguna State Polytechnic University, Siniloan Laguna, AY 2009-2010. In the second semester of the academic year 2009-2010, this study will be conducted to further clarify the relationship of academic performance in Philippine History to the development of national consciousness as affected by their profile including age, sex, religion, family income and parents’ occupation. While there are other factors that affect the performance of the student in Philippine History to the development of national consciousness, the researcher concentrated on three aspects of national consciousness such as political, economic and social. Definition of Terms The following concepts were operationally defined based on the objectives of the study: Philippine History. A required subject in the tertiary level which discuss the past and present experiences of Filipino. Academic Performance. It is the summary of accomplishments in Philippine History earned by the students expressed through grade in the report card. National Consciousness. Being aware of one’s surroundings especially the political, economic and socio-cultural affairs of a country.
  • 8. Instructional Materials. These refer to the audio-visual materials like books, graphic organizers, maps, globes and the like. Sensible. Being aware of one’s act. Student Profile. The student’s personal background such as age, sex, religion, family income and parents’ occupation. Political. Concerns about how the student-respondents react on the undertakings of Philippine Government. Economic. This relates on how man’s make a living. Social. The societal conditions and the activities undertaken by the people.
  • 9. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter will presents the related literature and studies about the area f research. It also attempts to relate theories, concepts, principles and some parameters and domain that may be relevant and helpful to clarify and understand this study. Related Literature Phan (2006) asserted that cultural diversity connotes the co-existence of many and different cultures in a particular location, whereas religious pluralism refers not only to religions diversity – that is , the simultaneous presence of several, at times mutually exclusive and even mutually hostile, religions is one and the some location – but also, and more importantly, to the heightened consciousness, ever more widespread sense modernity, of the necessarily relational and historical embedded character of all exclusive and absolute claims including religious one, a feature that seems to render such exclusive and absolute claims problematic if not impossible. Constantino (1998) a noted nationalist, suggests that “The education of the Filipino must be a Filipino education. It must be based on the needs of the nation, and the goals of the nation. The primary object is to produce a citizenry that appreciates and is conscious of its nationhood and has national goals for the betterment of the community, and not an anarchic mass of people who know how to take care of themselves only.” The Education Forum (1999) suggests some steps in aiming a Globalize Philippine Education as follows:
  • 10. 1. The essence of global thinking and of nationalism must be consciously integrated in both formal and informal learning situations. 2. The teachers themselves must consciously be aware of the workings of globalization. 3. The utilization of existing subjects, especially in the social sciences and humanities that will lend themselves to global values education and nationalist orientation. 4. To present a balanced view of globalization, showing both its advantages and disadvantages. 5. To unmask facts about the Filipinos history and culture and place them in the right perspective. 6. To guide the people to advance alternatives to solve the harmful effects of colonialism and globalization. 7. For the Philippine educational system to undergo a re-orientation toward a nationalist and mass-based education with the over-all aspirations of the Filipino people as the guiding light. In the inculcation of the true spirit of nationalism among the Filipinos and to balance the encompassing reach of globalization, the teaching of Philippine history, by virtue of its subject-matter, must take the crucial lead. However, it can only be effective if history teachers themselves are substantially and critically knowledgeable of Philippine history and of the nature and impact of globalization. Claro M. Recto (1999) describe the true essence of nationalism as “a banner of freedom proclaiming the national interest of the people, to be promoted and safeguarded by themselves so that the fruits of their efforts and the wealth derived from their God
  • 11. given resources shall accrue to them and thus enable all people to rise above poverty and march on prosperity, contentment and dignity.” Santos (2003) explained that the late nineteenth century in the Philippines history marks the most dramatic, if not the most dynamic; phase in the long process of constructing a national consciousness. This perception is a result of political and social events of the period, and it is equally reinforced by the expressive cultures of an emerging Filipino society. The arts -- literature, theater, music, dance, architecture, and painting -- provided effective channels for the expression of the Filipino psyche, taste and social behavior. They serve as concrete indicators of the transformation and evolution of the values and self-awareness, as well as tools to effect change for the construction of a national identity and a distinct cultural heritage. Today, a national Filipino identity embodies the concept of convergence and the intersection of diverse cultural elements and tradition from both Europe and the Philippine geographic borders. Smith, Kuhs and Ryans (1993) as cited by San Agustin (2007) stressed the need for an alignment of curriculum, goals, instructional experiences and assessment. Such is a proof of foreign situation where by curriculum goals are translated into instructional experiences which have to occur in both university and elementary classrooms. Stones (1994) as cited by San Agustin (2007) cited the call for improving teachers who need to see teaching as an activity of great complexity. The mentors need to see teaching as an open ended exploration where they express their pedagogical knowledge in action.
  • 12. Reyes (2004) cited that a man in his quest for meaning construct a perception of his world and an image himself. How the individual vices himself in this case, differ from individual as he grows in age and experience. Related Studies A study conducted by Dr. Ma. Luisa C. Doronila as cited by Orly Mercado April 26, 1985 a member of Batasan. (Cited also by Bustos and Espiritu, 1985) One of the findings of that study is “Respondents regularly placed the “Filipino” option in second or third position when these options include other countries, notably the United States. Instead of a national identity, it is the colonial mentality which remains firmly imbedded in the respondents’ consciousness.” San Agustin (2007) found in her study that there exist significant low and substantial relationship between Academic Rank of the respondents and their perceived level of grip on cultural values of Filipinos, love of country, awareness on the history of the nation and current issues and national concerns. The variable sex has bearing on the nationalistic Advocacy of the faculty members in selected State Colleges and Universities in CALABARZON in terms of the variables level of grip of mentors on Filipino Cultural Vales, integration of nationalistic task in classroom/ institutional activity and awareness on the history of the nation and current issues and national concerns.
  • 13. Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter will presents the research design, subjects of the study, and determination of sample, research procedures, research instruments and statistical treatment of data. Research Design This study will investigate the relationship between student performance in Philippine history and National Consciousness of Selected students at Laguna State Polytechnic University, AY 2009-2010. The researcher will use the descriptive survey method to arrive at her conclusions. The descriptive method of research involves collection of data in order to test the hypothesis and to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study (Calalo, 2003). In this particular study, it is the level of national consciousness as related to the performance of the students in Philippine history and their profile will be revealed. Subject of the Study The subjects of this study will be the students who are taking Philippine History as their subject at Laguna State Polytechnic University, AY 2009-2010. Specifically, the respondents will be divided into four (4) colleges, namely: COEd, CAS, CAST and CHMT. With ___, ___, ___ and ___ number of students respectively.
  • 14. Research Instrument The researcher will use a questionnaire checklist in gathering data needed to determine the relationship of Academic Performance in Philippine History and their National Consciousness. The questionnaire checklist will be divided into two parts. The first part includes the profile of the students such as age, sex, religion, family income and parents’ occupation. It will also include the student’s performance rating in Philippine History. The second part includes the level of consciousness which is divided into three (3) aspects such as political, economic and social. Research Procedure The researcher will undertake the study to reveal if the instructors successfully attained the objectives of teaching Philippine history. The researcher will ask the consent of the Campus Director of the Laguna State Polytechnic University for the administering of the research instrument that the researcher validated. Upon its approval, the researcher will start distributing questionnaire to the respondents to gather the needed information. Through the data that will be gathered the researcher will summarize and discuss the result of the study. After the discussion the researcher will formulate the conclusions and recommendations that will be based on the summary of the findings.
  • 15. Statistical Treatment of Data The list below presents the variables to be tested and the corresponding statistical treatment they were subjected to in order to arrive at the answers in this study. `Analysis Statistical Treatment 1. Profile of the students in terms of Frequency, Percentage, Rank 1.1 Age; 1.2 Sex; 1.3 Religion; 1.4 Family Income; and 1.5 Parents’ Occupation. 2. Performance off the student-respondents in Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Philippine History. Deviation 3. The level of National Consciousness of the Weighted Mean, Rank student-respondents. 4. Significant difference between academic ANOVA, Unpaired T-test, Regression, performance in Philippine History and Profile Chi-Square of the Student-Respondents. 5. Significant difference between National ANOVA, Unpaired T-test, Regression, Consciousness and Profile of the Student- Chi-Square Respondents. 6. Relationship between Academic Performance Pearson’s r, Spearman Rho, in Philippine History and National Regression Consciousness of Student-Respondents.
  • 16. The computed value that will be obtained in the following statistical tools will be derived at the threshold value of 0.05.