Addressing the Emerging RiskILSI SEA Region 6th Asian Conference on Food and Nutrition Safety (Nov 2012)http://www.ilsi.org/SEA_Region/Pages/ViewEventDetails.aspx?WebId=4D540914-EEB6-40E4-89EB-0B73BA3D76C1&ListId=478BE3CB-581B-4BA2-A280-8E00CCB26F9C&ItemID=66Addressing the Emerging Riskof Food FraudNovember 27, 2012Markus Lipp, Ph.D.Director, Food StandardsU.S. Pharmacopeia
The U.S. PharmacopeiaIndependent, not-for-profitscience-based public healthorganizationA public standards-settingauthority for drugs, dietaryauthority for drugs, dietarysupplements, and foodingredients.Established in 1820
U.S. Pharmacopeia Mission StatementTo improve the health of people around the world through publicstandards and related programs that help ensure the quality, safety,and benefit of medicines and foods.
The United States Pharmacopeia andthe National Formulary (USP–NF)Food Chemicals Codex (FCC)USP Dietary SupplementsCompendium (DSC)USP Medicines Compendium (MC)Core Compendial ProgramsUSP Medicines Compendium (MC)Reference StandardsOther Resources– Pharmacopeial Forum (PF)– FCC Forum– USP Dictionary– Chromatographic Columns
The Standards Setting ProcessTransparent andscience-basedmechanism todevelop new andrevised qualitystandardsApproval byindependent,volunteerscientific expertcommitteeProcess driven bystakeholders(mostly industry)Process open topublic input
The Frontline of Food Fraud Detection…Criminal “engineers” adulterantto evade existing QA system…Is an Epic Battle of Chasing Known and Unknown UnknownsQA system reacts bydeveloping new testsThe next adulterant is unknown!
Public Health Threat of Unknown Adulterants• Food safety assumes a known compositionFood safetycollapses to asingularitysingularityThe criminal’s ethics& knowledge definefood safetythroughout thewhole supply chain
FCC: The Compendial ApproachInstead of developing methods to detect whatshouldn’t be there……develop methods to characterize the “normalrange” of what should be thereAdvantage:Anything outside normal range is suspiciousCapable of detecting known and unknownadulterants at EMA levels
The Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) is a compendia ofinternationally recognized scientific standards established topromote uniformity of quality and added assurance of safety forfood ingredients.Food Chemicals Codex
USP’s Food Ingredients Fraud Database• Creating a baseline of fraud issues formaterials used as food ingredients– More than 1300 entries to date, update with 800 moreentries coming in 2013– Data sources:– Data sources:• 1980-2010, publically available, mostly Englishlanguage• Scholarly articles: > 500• Media: > 90
USP’s Skim Milk Powder Project• Objective: To develop and validate a “tool-box” of methods for the skimmed milkpowder matrix that will excludeeconomically adulterated materialsIncluding both known and unknownIncluding both known and unknownadulterantsCollaborative effort:> 15 organizations and 45 scientists
SteeringCommitteeIdentificationProceduresNon-Targetedw/ChemometricsSemi-Targetedw/ChemometricsIntact ProteinAssayProceduresModified TotalNitrogenAnalytical &ReferenceMaterialsAuthenticMaterialsAdulteratedSpectralLibrariesChemometricsUSP Skim Milk Powder Advisory GroupNIRRamanNMRLC-HRMS andMALDI-MSIntact ProteinFingerprintingAmino AcidFingerprintingTotal AminoAcidsColorimetricAdulteratedMaterialsInfrastructure= Current research sub-team= Research area= Proposed future sub-team
Preliminary NIR Investigation Results• Approach: Compare NIR spectrum ofunknown sample to library of non-adulterated sample “signatures” usingmultivariate/chemometric toolsLooks normal OR looks abnormal• Status: Feasibility and proof-of-conceptestablished in multiple single lab studies• Conclusions so far: Can pick up bothprotein and non-protein adulterants as lowas 0.05-5%
How to Interact With USPAttend any Expert Committee or Advisory PanelMeeting as ObserverElectronic Forum (free and open to the public)Stakeholder ForumAnnual Science MeetingWorkshopsWorkshopsFree e-Newsletterswww.usp.orgAcknowledgement: Premal Bhatt, Liwen Chen, KristieLaurvick, Carla Mejia, Jeff Moore