Strengthen Indonesia National Food Security 2010
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  • 1. STRATEGY AND POLICY TO STRENGTHEN NATIONAL FOODSECURITY: LESSON FROM INDONESIA Tahlim Sudaryanto Expert Group Meeting on “Achieving Food Security in Member Countries in Post-Crises World”, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2-3 May 2010 Indonesian Center for Agriculture Socio Economic and Policy Studies (ICASEPS)
  • 2. OUTLINE1. Introduction2.2 Current Status of Food Security3. National Food Security Strategy4. Conclusion and Implication ICASEPS
  • 3. INTRODUCTIONEconomic indicators 2000 2009E i i di t 2000-2009• GDP growth 5.1 %• Agriculture GDP growth 3.3%• Inflation rate 6.2%• Unemployment 9 2%9.2%• Poverty 32.5 million (14.2%) in 2009 ICASEPS
  • 4. INTRODUCTION (cont’d) (cont d)• Food-fuel-financial crises in 2007-2008• Impact to food security of the poor• Need to strengthen National Food Security Strategy (NFSS) ICASEPS
  • 5. CURRENT STATUS OF FOOD SECURITY • Production and availability y • Distribution and accesibility • C Consumption and nutrition ti d t iti ICASEPS
  • 6. Production and Availability Growth on rice production G th i d ti  1970-1980 : 4.37 4 37 %  1980-1990 : 4.30 %  1990-2000 : 1.40 1 40 %  2000-2006 : 0.80 %  2007 : 4.76 4 76 %  2008 : 5.46 %  2009 : 6.64 6 64 %ICASEPS
  • 7. Determinants of rice production in 2007-2009a. Good weather condition;b. High ib Hi h rice price; ic. Government policies on input subsidies, p p , price incentive, and import control;d.d Special program to accelerate rice production. ICASEPS
  • 8. Production of other food commodities, 2004-2009 (thausand ton) Production P d i Growth G h Growth G h Commodities (%) (%) 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 04-09 08-091. Maize 11 225 12 524 11 609 13 288 15 860 17 592 9.80 10.922. Soybean 723 808 748 593 761 973 7.96 27.863. Cassava 19 425 19 321 19 987 19 988 20 834 22 029 2.58 5.734. Sugar 2 052 2 242 2 307 2 624 2 801 3 341 10.38 19.285. Vegetables 9 060 9 102 9 564 9 941 10 234 10 531 3 62 2.946. Fruits 14 348 14 787 16 171 17 352 19 279 21 419 7.34 11.117. Beef 391 236 262 346 465 400 4.77 -13.988. Poultry 1 193 1 084 1 205 1 268 1 250 1 658 7.69 32.649. Egg 1 107 1 052 1 204 1 297 1 416 1 525 8.02 7.710.Fish 6.120 6.870 7.395 7.608 8.107 8.342 6,56 2,88
  • 9. Import of major food commodities, 2003-2008 (thousand ton)No Commodities 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1 Rice 1 438 246 195 400 1 397 298 2 Maize 1 371 1 115 235 1 845 772 467 3 Soybean 2 774 2 882 2 983 3 279 1 441 1 181 4 Sugar 1 271 635 1 347 995 3 088 1 099 5 Wheat 3 948 4 963 5 029 5 137 5 304 5 124 6 Beef 84 94 110 117 185 46 7 Milk 6 8 648 73 732 7 7 747 707 757 153 53 ICASEPS
  • 10. Availability of energy and protein for consumption 2003-2008 Energy Protein ( P t i (gram/cap/day) / /d ) Year (kcal/cap/day) Crop Animal Total 2003 3 082 63.3 12.2 75.5 2004 3 005 63.2 13.1 76.3 2005 2 912 64.5 12.3 76.8 2006 2 932 64.5 64 5 13.3 13 3 77.8 77 8 2007 3 040 66.2 14.5 80.7 2008 3 145 69.0 14.6 83.3 Growth (%) 0.42 1.65 3.34 1.93 ICASEPS
  • 11. Distribution of subsidized rice (Raskin) to poor household, 2002-2007 Total poor Distribution % to total poorYear household Rice Poor HH HH (million) ( illi ) (million ton) 2002 15.1 2.2 12.3 81.5 2003 15.8 2.0 11.8 75.1 2004 15.8 2.1 11.5 73.0 2005 15.8 2.0 11.2 71.0 2006 15.5 1.3 12.7 87.6 2007 19.1 1.7 16.7 87.6
  • 12. Trend on food consumption, 2005 2009 consumption 2005-2009 Consumption Description 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009Energyy 1996 1927 2015 2038 1927(kcal/cap/day)Protein 55.27 53.66 57.65 57.43 54.35(gram/cap/day)IDP Index 77.5 74.9 82.8 81.9 75.7 ICASEPS
  • 13. NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY PREVIOUS AND CURRENT POLICYIncrease safety net program1. Subsidized rice (at 70% price subsidy, 15kg/month/HH);2. Cash transfer (Rp.100 000/month/HH);3. Free health care;4. Subsidized education costs, especially for primary and secondary school p y y ICASEPS
  • 14. NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY (Cont’d)StabilizeStabili e food p ice price1. Reduce import tariffs;2. Reduce value added taxes;3. Special market operation, especially for rice and cooking oil;4. Subsidize soybean price for small scale processors;5. Subsidize fuel price for small scale food processors. ICASEPS
  • 15. NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY (Cont’d)Accelerate f d crop productionA l t food d ti Irrigation infrastructure; Good quality seed at subsidized price; Subsidized fertilizer; Farm credit at subsidized interest rate; d b d d Intensive extension services; Farm gate price along with procurement; l h Promote private sector investment (Gov.Reg.No.18/2009) (Gov Reg No 18/2009) ICASEPS
  • 16. NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY (Cont’d) FUTURE PERSPECTIVESProblems and challenges:1. Persistence of small farm;2.2 Diversification change slowly; Di ifi i h l l3. Over intensification;4. Increasing public spending;5.5 Decentralisation policy. policy ICASEPS
  • 17. NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY (Cont’d)Objectives:a.a Enhance food availability based on local resources;b. Improve access to food for all household g in all region;c. Increase quantity and quality of food consumption for a better and balance diet ICASEPS
  • 18. NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY (Cont’d)Targets:1. Achievement of food availability: energy consumption 2200 kcal/capita/day, p protein consumption 57 gram/capita/day, p g p y, maximum import 5%;2. Stable prices=>price margin between2 harvest and non-harvest period maximum of 10%; ICASEPS
  • 19. NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY (Cont’d)Targets:3. Reduce poverty incidence by 1%/year => 50% decline in 2015 or 8%;4. Diversified and balanced diet: energy4 2000 kcal/cap/day, protein 52 gr/capita/day, sufficient micro nutrient, and IDP index close to 100. ICASEPS
  • 20. NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY (Cont’d)Policy and strategy:1. Enhance food availability with self- relience principle2. Increase household capacity to access adequate food3. Increase quantity and quality of food consumption to achieve a better diet4.4 Improve Communities Nutrition Status5. Improve Food Quality and Safety ICASEPS
  • 21. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATION1. Production of staple food shows a strong growth=>huge government investment on infrastructures, input subsidies, price support, R&D, extension;2. Short-term policy responses to food crises: a. stabilize staple food prices by accumulating stock; b. b implement broader safety net program. ICASEPS
  • 22. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATION (cont’d) (cont d)3.3 Medium-term and long-term policy responses: accelerate food production.4.4 Sustainable food security strategy: income security first, FS come later.5. Promote d diversification toward high value f dh h l commodities.6. Increase investment on infrastructures, R&D, strengthen farmer’s institution.7. Reallign strategy of international communities. ICASEPS
  • 23. ICASEPS