Special Programme for Strengthening SPS Facilities and“Quality Inspection Services in Compliance with WT O- Establishment of An Integrated National Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [NAPHIS]” NAPHIS Ministry of National Food Security and Research Govt. of Pakistan Islamabad September, 2012
APPLICATION OF SANITARY/PHYTSOSANITARY (SPS) MEASURES UNDER WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures necessary for protection of human, animal or plant life or health. Members shall ensure application of SPS measures based upon scientific principles. SPS measures shall not be applied in a manner which constitute a disguised restriction on International trade.
STATUS OF SPS MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN Pakistan lacks coherent strategy for SPS Management in relation to its trade. Non-compliance with food safety/quality standards in export trade. Frequent rejection of agricultural export consignments, results into huge loss of foreign exchange earnings, while poor quality imports are also equally harmful. Imposition of ban(s) on exports due to non-compliance of SPS Standards. Lack of SPS Management capacity in Agricultural Line Departments/Labs. SPS Acts/ Laws/ Quality Standards require review. Lack of SPS Management/inspection and quality certification system for meeting International trade requirements.
EXISTING LEGAL/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK ON SPS The Pakistan Animal Quarantine (Import and Export of Animal and Animal Products) Ordinance, 1978. The Pakistan Plant Quarantine Act, 1976. The Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking ) Act, 1937. The Pakistan Fish Inspection and Quality Control Act, 1997. The Exclusive Fisheries Zone (Regulation and Fishing) Act, 1975. The Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance, 1971 (Ordinance No. II of 1971).
NAPHIS – AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Capacity Building of Federal Agricultural Line Departments/Labs for SPS Management / Int. Accreditation. Ensure compliance of national/international food safety standards for better trade in agriculture produce/livestock. Designate National Enquiry Point/Contact Point for SPS Management System. Develop an Integrated National SPS Management/ Inspection & Quality Certification System for exports/imports. Co-ordinate Provincial SPS Control System with Federal functions. Establish NAPHIS, as a National Food Safety, Animal and Plant Health Regulatory Body/Authority.
NAPHIS COMPONENT UNIT/RELATED BODIES Ministry of National Food Security and Research GQTL (M/Food Security) AQD (M/Food Security) DPP NVL (M/Food Security) (M/Food Security) NAPH IS FSC & RD MFD (M/Food Security) (M/Ports & Shipping) DALPMG (Devolved) Other Related Agencies:(a) Local: MOC, MOH, M/Food Security, M/Ports & Shipping, Provincial Agr/Food Departments/PDDBs, M/Science & Technology (PNAC , PSQCA) etc(b) Foreign: Codex Alimentarius Commission/Committees FAO, WHO, UNIDO, WTO USDA/APHIS and Foreign Trading Partners.
NAPHIS - ACHIEVEMENTS NAPHIS role has been largely recognized both nationally and internationally (FAO, EU, UNIDO, CSF, USDA / APHIS etc). TECHNICAL:MOUs /Bilateral Trade Agreements : Framework for Equivalency Work Plan signed with USDA, allowing import / export of irradiated food / fruits / mangoes etc. Operational Work Plan for Domestic Irradiation of Mangoes signed with APHIS/USDA. Joint survey of Mango Orchards by DPP and PHDEC helped achieve compliance procedures for mango export.
Analytical Reports: NAPHIS – APHIS Cooperation Gelatin Units , Fish / Fisheries Products Citrus Exports Slaughter Houses NAPHIS Inventory / Regulatory Framework Food Safety, NAPHIS, TA Requirements, Analysis of Confiscated Export Consignments etc.
TECHNICAL: Risk analysis carried out in 35 districts of Punjab /Sindh by NVL for Foot & Mouth Disease (FMD). Pest Risk Analysis carried out by DPP for Mangoes, Apples, Citrus Fruits, Dates and Cherry exports to meet USA/Australia /China concerns. Compiled data for EU-TRTA-II Program on inspection and certification systems of component units and related bodies for SPS compliance. Developed Risk Analysis Framework for Import/Export of animals and animal products, fish and fish products, including Halal Meat Certification. Framework of Pest Risk Analysis for plants and plant material, prepared for NPPO (DPP). Import Risk Analysis conducted for heavy metals in fish.
Instituted regular feedback system for benefit of exporters, regulatory bodies and TDAP for remedial measures to check confiscation of export consignments under European Commission Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). NAPHIS was instrumental in approval of 7 slaughter houses in Karachi and Lahore, which are currently exporting mutton and beef to Middle Eastern countries, as per World Animal Health Organization (OIE) standards. Upon NAPHIS initiatives USDA sponsored visit of APHIS Experts to Pakistan to assist in Mango Export Programme to US.
LEGAL: Drafted Bill for conversion of NAPHIS into Regulatory Authority after consultation with Federal and Provincial Ministries / Divisions / Departments / Agencies and with the assistance of an international SPS Specialist hired by UNIDO under EU TRTA-II Program. Bill shall be submitted to the Parliament i.e. after clearance by the Council of Common Interest, the Cabinet, and vetting by Ministry of Law. Initiated review of SPS Acts/Laws/Regulations and Grades/Quality Standards. Drafted Food Safety /Quality Standards for SAARC.
LAB. ACCREDITATION Accreditation of two labs each of GQTL and MFD (Microbiological & Chemical) got extended up to 2012 by Norwegian Agency. Pre-assessment study for accreditation of Laboratories. Prepared Accreditation Work Plan for the labs of Agricultural Line Departments/Labs ( e.g. NVL & FSC & RD Lab has applied for accreditation and MFD & GQTL labs already re-accredited). Designation of Quality/ Technical Managers by Line Departments for Dev. of Quality /Technical Manuals (ISO – 17025). Survey Report on Public Sector Lab Testing facilities for Processed/Semi-Processed Food Products – (Accredited/Non- Accredited), November, 2008. Construction of two additional lab buildings for GQTL (Islamabad and Karachi) and NVL building is at design stage. Supply of additional lab equipment etc. to NVL, GQTL, FSC & RD, and MFD.
INTER-AGENCY COOPERATION: Advised TDAP / REAP (MOC) to initiate action against exporters, failing to meet International quality requirements. Sensitized Rice and Chillies Growers (Punjab & Sindh) on Aflatoxin issues and advised for adoption of Modern Drying Techniques/ GAP. On NAPHIS initiative, four Codex meetings approved for financial support through Codex Trust Fund (2012) including CODEX Committee on pesticide residues. NAPHIS member of National TBT Committee.
ADMINISTRATIVE: (NAPHIS) has been designated as National Enquiry Point on SPS issues. NAPHIS designated as Contact Point for Codex Alimentarius Commission. Reconstituted National Codex Committee and four Sub Committees.
FOOD SAFETY HAZARDSBIOLOGICAL Bacteria, fungi, virus, worms, insects and rodentsCHEMICAL Mycotoxins, marine toxins, environmental contaminants (mercury, lead), radionuclide and dioxins. Pesticides and Veterinary drugs
ACTION MATRIX Food Safety policy at National level Enforcement of pesticide legislation for import, registration, formulation & distribution. Establish a network of pesticides residue testing laboratories in the country. Initially one in each of the Provinces and designate a National Pesticides Reference Lab (NARC). Accreditation of laboratories Update Analytical standards Revise existing grades and standards of quality of agricultural produce to include MRLs, as per Codex standards.
Inspection and certification of agricultural produce for assurance of compliance with international MRL standards. Introduction of Good Agricultural Practices at farmer / growers level, including judicious use of pesticides on need basis. Establish a risk analysis system based upon pesticide risk analysis, pesticide risk management and information sharing with stakeholders. Impart training to growers on adoption of G.A.P. Assist farmers in pest and disease management (Integrated Pest Management IPMS)
IMPACT ON INTERNATIONAL TRADEi. Help ensure supply of safe food to the consumers.ii. Remove health hazards associated with indiscriminate use of excessive pesticides.iii. Help gain market access to potential markets through SPS compliance.iv. Minimize chances of rejections of export consignments at destination.v. Increase export earnings through increase in per unit price due to better quality produce.
CONCLUSION Various case studies conducted by different organizations / departments conclude that; excessive pesticides are being used in Pakistan which has aggravated pest problems and has imposed substantial external cost on the stakeholders. Indicating institutional failure in the country, which requires policy decision on establishment of a regulatory authority to protect health of consumers and growers.
PROPOSED MODULE OF SPS CONTROL AUTHORITY National Food Safety, Animal & Plant Health Authority Integrated SPS Border Control Federal Level…………………………………………………………………………………………. Provincial Level Food Safety Animal Health Plant Health (PCA) (PCA) (PCA)
NAPHIS - WAY FORWARD Implementation of a Systematic program to monitor the use of different pesticides. Clarity in role of public sector institutions responsible for pesticide residue analysis and dissemination of information. Amendment of existing grades and standards of quality of exportable agricultural commodities to include MRLs. Introduction of pest risk management regime and traceability protocols to protect health of consumers and growers. Encourage growers for Global G.A.P. Certification. Trade Policy Decision on Pak G.A.P. System may be expedited. Pesticides testing laboratories may be established, at least one in each province. A national pesticide reference lab may be designated preferably in NARC (PARC).