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I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
I Second That Emotion
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I Second That Emotion

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  • 1. I Second That Emotion Presentation to PFSG conference: Fast Forward David Penn, Managing Director, Conquest Twitter @davidpenn1
  • 2. What I’m going to talk about • Why Emotion is so important • Why conventional MR is not very good at measuring it • Why neuromarketing is not the (full) answer • Why we need to look for new solutions © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 3. Why the interest in emotion? Neuroscience has revolutionised our understanding of how people make decisions Increasing frustration with the limitations of conventional techniques for measuring emotion © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 4. ‘‘My dad always told me you’ve got to dig it, grow it or build it, the rest is just fluff’’. © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 5. Stuff vs. Fluff Products Stuff Brands Advertising Packaging Fluff © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 6. Stuff vs. Fluff Physical measurement Stuff Feelings Emotions Conceptualisation Fluff © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 7. Stuff vs. Fluff Science Stuff Humanities Fluff © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 8. What does Cognitive Neuroscience tell us? © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 9. “They’re made of meat!” “Meat?! So what does the thinking?” © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 10. Reptilian - Survival Limbic - Emotional Neo-cortex - Abstract © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 11. • Neuroscience shows that conscious decisions seem to be based on emotional rather than rational cues, or triggered subconsciously: - a large proportion of human motivations thus lie below the level of consciousness - emotions cannot be measured adequately via self-report verbal indicators • Modern (cognitive) psychology tells us that some decisions are made intuitively, automatically and without any conscious control or effort. • Marketers now seek new ways to explore preconscious, non-verbal stages of information processing The impact of neuroscience © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 12. Client logo here Our conscious mind is only the tip of the iceberg Conscious, rational, verbal (system 1) Unconscious, emotional, non-verbal (system 2) © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 13. From System 2 to System 1…. We weigh up the benefits of the options on offer, choosing the best. We are not in control of, or even aware of, most of our thinking, We can explain our behaviour, our thinking and our emotions. We have a vast and automatically operating unconscious mind, but we have no direct conscious access to it. FROM… TO © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 14. Whenever emotions conflict with thinking, emotion wins. We are about as effective at stopping an emotion as stopping a sneeze. - Antonio Damasio Emotion leads to action, while reason leads to conclusions. - Donald Calne © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 15. Conventional research measures the head but not the heart Rational Response ? © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 16. What happens in our brain How it makes us feel How we explain it to ourselves Emotion Feelings Rationalisation © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 17. The more we think and consider, the further we get from our emotions The Key Problem of Conventional MR © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 18. Emotion without cognitive appraisal is really just arousal Mast and Zaltman © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 19. Which is where neuromarketing comes in. . . Question: How can we understand emotion without asking people how they feel? © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 20. We’ve been trying to look into the brain for centuries © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 21. And we discover that consumers do not always tell us the truth about why they buy brands Now we can … © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 22. Neuromarketing • Ethics • Practicality • Hype © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 23. © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 24. Is Neuroscience the same as Neuromarketing? The study of how our thoughts and feelings are implemented into the brain The use of neuroscientific technologies to measure response to marketing stimuli Cognitive Neuroscience Neuromarketing Neurometrics © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 25. Not all ‘neuromarketing’ is based on neuroscience All Indirect measurements Brain Scanning fMRI/PET) Brainwave (EEG) Facial codingEye Tracking Implicit association New MR methods Autonomic arousal Neuroscience Cognitive  Psychology Physiology © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 26. • In 2003, neuroscientists in US found that in a blind product test of Coke/Pepsi only those parts of the brain relating to sensory judgement were active. • Brain imaging (fMRI) showed that Coke branding activated areas of the brain associated with emotional judgement, whilst knowledge of Pepsi had no corresponding effect. • But when respondents were told what they were drinking, preference switched in Coke’s favour, and parts of the brain associated with emotional response became active. The Birth of Neuromarketing © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 27. A brain scan is a fast acting solvent of critical faculties Matthew B Crawford © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 28. Why isn’t fMRI used more widely? • Poor temporal resolution – Can take 5 secs for added blood supply to reach activated/ affected part of the brain • Claustrophobic and stressful respondent experience • BUT. . . Hugely expensive (non-portable) equipment • It’s the only neuromarketing technique with sufficiently high spatial resolution to locate activity in specific brain regions © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 29. What about Biometrics? • Eye tracking is supported by ‘strong eye hypothesis’ which says that a person cognitively processes info at the same time as their visual attention is fixed on that object. • Skin conductance can measure the degree of arousal created by a stimulus • Facial EMG measures facial muscle movements which may reflect conscious or unconscious expression of emotion • Question: Can these techniques tell us the emotional valence (meaning) of the response? © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 30. Issues with Biometrics • No full agreement about the impact of emotional valence on visual attention. Most evidence shows that both negative and positive stimuli capture attention. • Pupil dilation alone is not a good indicator of affective states • Skin conductance cannot determine the direction or valence of emotional reaction but merely measures degree of arousal Can we determine emotional valence using other approaches? © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 31. • EEG relies on a model that the left Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) is involved in approach behaviour whereas right PFC is involved in withdrawal from aversive stimuli. • Evidence is compelling, but not completely conclusive because anger, which is an approach but a negatively valenced emotion, cannot be separated from happiness EEG - Electroencephalography © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 32. Why EEG must be treated with caution • Dorsolateral PFC is most associated with cognitive control…This sector is most directly reflected in EEG recordings • Orbital PFC is most associated with emotional value….Yet this is the sector least likely to be recorded by EEG © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 33. Emotions and reasoning sit side by side in our brains Orbital PFC Pre-Frontal cortex Hippocampus CONSCIOUS REASONING Amygdala Limbic System EMOTION Dorsolateral PFC “One unwitting consequence of my work …is the view that the PFC is the primary region for emotion/motivation… (Yet) the prefrontal sector most directly associated with emotion is the orbital PFC - which is the sector least likely to be recorded by EEG. “ Davidson 2004 © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 34. Should we be neuromantics or neurosceptics? “Marketers are not interested in science or complexity…they want simplicity – an easy to understand, single number solution…There is a temptation to over-simplify and over- claim.“ Max Sutherland, psychologist and marketing consultant “I compare advertisers to Christopher Columbus gripping a simple map of the earth he believed to be flat. Thanks to (neuromarketing) we’re now able to see an almost Aristotelian shift in thinking; companies are beginning to realise that the world, in fact, is round.“ Martin Lindstrom, Buy.OLOGY © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 35. Neuromantic • Verbal responses about emotion are unreliable • Respondents post-rationalise • Too much goes goes on unconsciously to rely on conscious response • We cannot see into our own brains • Neuromarketing tells us what we can’t know through other means © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 36. • Difficult to locate specific emotions in the brain – except, perhaps, via fMRI • Most neuromarketing techniques give either a partial (EEG) or secondary/ time-lagged reading like bio-metrics • We can observe a brain response (arousal) but that doesn’t tell us about its valence or how it feels Neurosceptic © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 37. • Is the science only good enough for experimentation rather than commercial application? • Are there other less expensive and invasive ways of measuring emotion without direct questioning? Neuromarketing raises some fundamental questions “In neuromarketing there is no E = MC squared equation" Richard Thorogood, Director of Strategic Insights & Analytics, Colgate-Palmolive US Company © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 38. New approaches to MR © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 39. APPROACH SOURCE RATIONALE APPLICATION Facial Coding Social Psychology  (Ekman) Facial expressions link to  emotion and are universal 1. Decoding of facial  expressions   2. Proxies of facial  expressions Implicit Association Tests Social Psychology We’re influenced by stuff  in our implicit memory  that we are not  consciously aware of Measures of speed  of association – often with primed  stimuli © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 40. Facial Coding • Recording and analysis of spontaneous facial expressions to understand fleeting reactions, e.g. - Anger, fear, sadness, disgust, surprise, happiness etc • Pros  Well established academic foundation  Variety of expressions do seem to be universal, so allows measurement of unreported feelings or reactions that are too fast to express, bypassing need for introspection • Cons  Manual coding requires training and takes time  Automated app progressing but still developing  Limited number of mental states can be coded – primarily negative rather than positive © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 41. Implicit Associations • Well established methods from cognitive psychology, to assess automatic associations with a stimulus - Semantic Priming effects indicate ideas associated with the item - Affective Priming indicates emotional reactions to the item • Primarily verbal, but methods use reaction time or task accuracy to avoid need to ask direct questions - Any stimulus automatically activates a network of associated ideas. - Automatic emotional reactions facilitate or interfere with processing of emotional ideas © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 42. Implicit associations – pros and cons Pros • Suited to investigation of sensitive topics or deeper motivations • Quantitative investigation of issues usually explored only in qual • Can be administered easily in online surveys • Flexible – can be applied to a wide variety of marketing issues Cons • Methods aren’t intuitive for lay-people • Reveals what and how people react, not why • Can be repetitive and sample-intensive • Effects are fragile if not administered correctly © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 43. Implicit associations reveal people’s deeper motivations HEALTHY EXCITING SUPERFICIAL CONFIDENT ENERGETIC OPTIMISTIC INSPIRING ENJOYABLE INSECURE SHAPELY STYLISH PRESSURE SKINNY Explicit % 57 5 28 54 6 31 23 31 24 29 11 12 53 Implicit
  • 44. We had emotions before we had language By engaging the language of visual imagery, we enable a richer description of our inner feelings. - Gerald Zaltman © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 45. We communicated long before we had language Episodic memory Mimesis (sign/mime) Non-verbal representation Metaphor Symbols/Language © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 46. APPROACH SOURCE RATIONALE APPLICATION Metaphor Analysis Cognitive Linguistics  Metaphors are (universal)  thought constructs which  underpin language and  which link directly to  emotions Quantitatively ‐ via visualised  metaphoric   scales. Qualitatively  ‐ via deconstruction of  images Cultural Analysis Semir Zeki “Spendours and Miseries of the  Brain” Language/art/literature  are brain outputs and can  be deconstructed to  understand underlying  brain concepts © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 47. Primary Metaphors allow people to express their feelings intuitively I have a very warm relationship with her I feel close to him I jumped for joy www.metaphorixuk.com Affection Intimacy Excitement EmotionMetaphor © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 48. Metaphorix® reveals intensity of response % % Proximity 58 17 975 02102 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 10987654321 Metaphorix® 8 11 24 20 10 16 32 5 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 10987654321 Verbal scale Warmth 46 1616 8 12 0 2 000 0 10 20 30 40 50 10987654321 Metaphorix® 18 14 30 20 88 2 001 0 10 20 30 40 50 10987654321 Verbal scale Close Distant Close Cold Warm Cold Warm % % Distant 48 © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 49. Questions to ask of new methods Do the techniques yield meaningful results? Do they deliver incremental insights? Are they better predictors of behaviour? Are they practical? Some- times It varies © Copyright 2013 Conquest Research & Consultancy Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this work shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Managing Director.
  • 50. Thank you David Penn Conquest
  • 51. Contact David Penn Managing Director : : David Penn Managing Director : : davidp@conquestuk.com +44 208 834 0900 davidp@conquestuk.com +44 208 834 0900 David Penn Managing Director : : davidp@conquestuk.com +44 208 834 0900 www.conquestuk.com www.metaphorixuk.com

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