Insert your image in the master slide What is Knowledge Management?Andrew Wall – United UtilitiesAdrian Malone – Faithful+Gould
The APM Knowledge SIG Judy Payne Steve Simister Andy Wall Hemdean Oxford Consulting United UtilitiesAdrian Malone Martin Fisher Katie Ball Philip PammentFaithful+Gould WRAP RBS PRP Architects
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Key Messages•Knowledge is not the same as information.•Knowledge can never be captured completely.•Knowledge management must involve connecting people to people as well as connecting people to information.•There is no one-size-fits-all recipe for effective knowledge management.
Your Experiences of Knowledge Management what tools and techniques do you use for managing knowledge?
What is Knowledge Management?
The deadliest sins of knowledge management
Lesson OneBe clear about what youmean
Explicit and tacit knowledge Explicit: knowledge that can readily be codified into words and numbers. Easy to share. Difficult to protect. Tacit: knowledge that is personal and difficult to express. What we don’t know we know. Difficult to share. The most valuable kind of knowledge.
Why Does This Matter?Managing explicit knowledge Managing tacit knowledgeCapture and codify as much as Encourage people to connect,you can. Share. Quite easy. communicate and collaborate. Quite difficult.Document management, processes, case Communities of practice, conversations,studies, lessons learned databases apprenticeships
Working relationshipsRelationship Motivating Potential State of trust Outlook Behaviour type force outcomes Highly For the good BreakthroughCollaborative Synergy Responsible invested of the whole innovation For Transaction successful PreconceivedCo-operative Win-Win Willing oriented project success outcomes Reluctant or Win within Competitive To look good Shrewd Compromise cautious rules Win at any Adversarial Distrust Not to lose Cut-throat Unpredictable cost Hattori and Lapidus, 2004
What happens if you don’tmake a distinction betweenknowledge and information?
The Wheelbarrow Test
Knowledge and knowing Things an individual Things a group can can express (eg express (eg shared Explicit concepts, rules, stories, shared equations) jargon) KNOWING (AS ACTION) Shared Tacit Individual skills, understanding of ‘the intuition, judgement, way things work etc around here’ Individual Group Cook and Brown, 1999
DIKW Data does not create data information; information does not create knowledge and knowledge does not create information wisdom. People use their knowledge to make sense of data and information. People knowledge create information that represents their knowledge, which can then be wisdom more widely shared. Harold Jarche
A working definition of knowledgeKnowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextualinformation, and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluatingand incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and isapplied in the minds of knowers. In organisations, it often becomesembedded not only in documents or repositories but also in organisationalroutines, processes, practices and norms. Davenport and Prusak, 1998
Lesson TwoRemember both knowledgestocks and knowledge flows
Knowledge flows Project Individual Profession Organisation Single project and organisation Programmes, portfolios, profession, society… 22
Do you focus on knowledge flows oron knowledge stocks?
What helps knowledge to flow?•Time, trust and territory (Miles, Snow and Miles)•Hire smart people and let them talk to one another (Davenport and Prusak)•Shared language•Think of and acknowledge everyone as a knowledge worker It’s the environment, stupi d!
Tools and techniques for knowledge flow
Hierarchies and Networks Hierarchies Networks •Relationships mandated •Relationships voluntary •Top-down control •Emergent, bottom-up •Good for sharing information •Good for collaboration, and managing explicit knowledge-sharing, and knowledge learning •Tend to be formal •Tend to be informal •Managed ‘traditionally’ •Managed by letting go
Communities and Teams Communities of practice Teams •Long-term development of •Focus on specific time-bound knowledge deliverables •Leaders establish •Leaders have authority over direction, connect members members and facilitate discussions •Seek to expand the resources •Consult peers and experts for and experts available to help with specific, known individuals problems •Knowledge stewardship with a •Focus on a given problem – no view to solving problems that ongoing responsibility for have not yet been discovered developing knowledge McDermott and Archibald, 2010
Putting It TogetherHierarchies AND networks
Some Key Principals•Knowing is a human capability. Knowledge itself can’t be managed•Collaboration is a pre-requisite for knowledge creation and sharing•Collaboration is voluntary•What we can do is create the right environment and provide appropriate tools for people to collaborate and to create and share knowledge.
Stocks and flows With thanks to Chris Collison for the butterflies metaphor
Why Knowledge Management MattersWhy collaboration and knowledge are importantEconomic era Standardisation Customisation InnovationMeta-capability Coordination Delegation CollaborationBusiness model Market Market Market penetration segmentation explorationGrowth driver Learning-curve Know-how Entrepreneurial gains and scale transfer to new empowerment Economies marketsOrganisational Functional Divisional, Alliances, spin-model matrix, and offs, and network federationsKey asset Tangible assets Information Knowledge Miles, Snow and Miles, 2000
KM in Project EnvironmentsKnowledge and projectsKnowledge is the most valuable of an organisationsintangible assets. Organisations exist to create, integrateand transform knowledge into goods and services.Projects create a portal through which the knowledge ofsingle or multiple organisations can be accessed andtransformed.Project-based working in its various forms provides a fast andflexible means of organising knowledge resources. Kogut and Zander 1992; Lampel et al 2008; Sydow et al 2004
Future Events Tuesday 14th May 2013. Birmingham 18:00-20:30 Where does information management end, and knowledge management begin? Tuesday 25th June 2013. Warrington 12:00 -18:00 Managing knowledge in a project environment (TBC).