-Stronger commitment to responsible coastal aquaculture is needed not only from the producers, but also from government authorities and general public, including consumers. -To address this problem, the Ministry of Agriculture made a survey to determine the actual situation referring to eco-innovations in aquaculture farms, taking into account the economic, social and environmental point of view. -After gathering and analyzing the information, the general response to this topic, is an apparent lack –and therefore a need- of specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-framed indicators. -As showed in the poll and after a prioritization was made, this work was made to tackle this situation with a main indicator: “Percentage of farms adopting eco-innovative aquaculture protocols”. -The main objectives of this release are to help authorities and coastal aquaculture farms to execute an objective monitoring of their coastal aquaculture activities and technology; to measure the eco-innovation knowledge and implementation and their social participation; and finally measure the ecological footprint.
1) ContextWhat is aquaculture?The farming of aquatic organisms including fish, mollusks, crustaceans, and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators and others. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated. Food and Agriculture Organization (1990)The geographical area covered by the term “coastal” includes the shore land influenced by the sea, the water column and the sea bed extending to edge of the continental edge (Sorensen and McCreary, 1990).Therefore the term “coastal aquaculture” ……Covers land-based and water-based brackish and marine aquaculture practices. (Guidelines for the promotion of environmental management of coastal aquaculture development, U.C.Barg)
1) ContextContext scenario: ProducersCommitment Percentage of to farms adopting Government Ministry of responsible eco-innovative coastal authorities Agriculture aquacultureaquaculture protocols ConsumersAim of the project:• Help authorities and coastal aquaculture farms to execute an objective monitoring of their coastal aquaculture activities and technology;• Measure the eco-innovation knowledge and implementation and their social participation; and finally• Measure the ecological footprint.
2) Methods: DPSIR DRIVERS OF COASTAL-CULTURE ACTIVITY AND ECONOMY Adoptation of eco- innovative coastal aquaculture methods by the farms PRESSURES RESPONSES Environmental integration of farms ENVIRONMENTAL AND STATE OF THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS ENVIRONMENT
2) Methods: Indicator - system Percentage of farms adopting eco- innovative aquaculture protocols Technology and best Eco-innovation knowledge Ecological footprint practices and social participation Percentages Other units Percentages Other units Percentages Other units % of farms using Tons of high % of farms Number of % of farms Number ofhigh quality feeds quality feeds used training employees employees trained adopting an Environmental (Tons/year) in eco-innovation in eco-innovation Environmental Impact Assessment (Number) Impact Assessment (EIA) and monitoring % of farms Investments in (EIA) and monitoring proceduresimplementing innovative % of recruited workers within the last procedure performedinnovative technologies for three years with training in eco-innovation (Number/year)technologies for waste managementwaste management (Amount /year) % of farms Frequency of % of farms adopting mitigation measures participating in exchange on best post EIA % of farms using agriculture-aquaculture exchange platforms available techniques % of farms with Difference ofsystems on best available and practices (ratio) an ISO 14001 number of ISO 14001 % of farms Profitability of techniques and certification certifications everyadopting extensive extensive pond practices 3 yearspond culture culture systems % of farms Tax contribution (number/3years)systems (Profit/pond contributing to the of farms to local % of farms Density of fish system/year) development of communities adopting moderate dedicated to % of farms Number of species local communities (monetary unit) stocking levels stocking levelsadopting integrated per trophic level in % of farms Time dedicated (weight/volume)Multi-Trophic polyculture providing effective to communication % of farms monitoring the presence ofaquaculture aquaculture tools for and engagement algae (seaweed) as a bio-indicator forpractices (Number) communication with with stakeholders water quality evaluation stakeholders (time unit)
2) Methods: Indicator - system Purposes • Aquaculture indicators are used to assess the condition of the environment in which this practice takes place and how the activity itself can impact the environment. • The formulated indicator should provide information about the structure, function and composition of the coastal aquaculture system. Dependency Both conventional and eco-indicators suffered from the Vague goals and objectives following problems lack scientific rigor
2) Methods: Indicator - system NUSAP Tool for assessing uncertainty and data flaws Quantitative dimensions: Numeric, Unit, Spread Qualitative dimensions: Assessment, Pedigree Advantages and disadvantages Rigorous and lengthy methodology: relevance for what scale of eco-innovation and systems?
2) Methods: Indicator - systemNUSAPPedigree Matrix• In Green: criteria scoring 3 and +: no immediate action;• In yellow: scores of 1.5 to 2.5 requiring mid-term revision;• In red: scores below 1.5 requiring urgent revision of the indicator’s foundations and/or of the activity measured
2) Methods: Indicator - system NUSAP Applied to the TIMER energy model (Source: Van der Sluijs et al., 2001)
2) Methods: Indicator - system • Questionnaire for indicator-system measurement Includes questions type “Yes/No” and questions providing specific data. The questionnaire has scores for environmental performance and for innovation. Technologies and best practices Does your farm use an Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture practice? Score1 No Yes If « yes », please add the number of species per trophic level in polyculture aquaculture: EES 0 5 ………………………………………… IS 0 5 Eco-innovation knowledge and social participation Did your company send employees to eco-innovation training(s) lasting more than 3 days? Score6 No Yes If « yes », please add the number of employees: EES 0 1 ………………………………………… IS 0 2 Ecological footprint Does your farm have an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and monitoring procedure? Score11 No Yes If « yes », please add the number EIA/year: EES 0 2 ………………………………………… IS 0 1 • Questionnaire for collecting feedbacks from the questioned coastal aquaculture farms
3) Conclusions • The aim of “Divising an eco-innovation indicator-system for coastal aquaculture” project is to evaluate the eco-innovation character of the “ adaptation of coastal aquaculture methods” response to issues in coastal aquaculture by using an indicator-system which is “percentage of coastal aquaculture farms adopting eco-innovative protocols” • Project’s main focus is the development of the indicator-system by integrating methodical elements components. • The result of this report is that an indicator-system on eco-innovation evaluation and monitoring is possible in coastal aquaculture. A very useful tool is NUSAP quality model which scans indicators’ pitfalls and uncertainties.