ENGLISH PHONETICS and
PHONOLOGY I – 2013

Prof. Adriana Gonzalez
Let’s Remember…
 What is a PHONEME?
It is the smallest contrastive phonological unit.
What are MINIMAL PAIRS?

“Minimal Pairs are words in which all the
sounds or phonemes are the same
except for one. They sh...
What areALLOPHONES?
 Allophones are sounds, while Phonemes are sets of such sounds;
 They are the variations of those ph...
 Because the reléase stage is so abrupt when we are producing voiceless plosives /p/ /t/ /k/
in IP in stressed / accented...
Voiceless plosives preceded by /s/ in a syllable, they are
produced without aspiration.
scream /skri:m/
Spain /speIn/

...
When there’re two plosives together in a cluster, the 1st is
UNRELEASED and only the 2nd is RELEASED.
stopped /stp t/

...
 ALLOPHONES of the /l/ phoneme
o clear ^[l]: It resembles the /i/ sound, with the front of the tongue raised. (light, loo...
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English Allophones

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English Phonetics and Phonology

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English Allophones

  1. 1. ENGLISH PHONETICS and PHONOLOGY I – 2013 Prof. Adriana Gonzalez
  2. 2. Let’s Remember…  What is a PHONEME? It is the smallest contrastive phonological unit.
  3. 3. What are MINIMAL PAIRS? “Minimal Pairs are words in which all the sounds or phonemes are the same except for one. They show that a change in a phoneme implies a change in meaning.” hat /ht/ heart /hA:t/ bit /bIt/ beat /bi:t/ van /vn/ fan /fn/
  4. 4. What areALLOPHONES?  Allophones are sounds, while Phonemes are sets of such sounds;  They are the variations of those phonemes.
  5. 5.  Because the reléase stage is so abrupt when we are producing voiceless plosives /p/ /t/ /k/ in IP in stressed / accented syllables, these sounds have a slight variation: They are ASPIRATED. Aspiration is a voiceless interral or a puff of air between the release of the voiceless plosives and the following sound. complain /km.pleIn/ retain /rI.teIn/ decrease /dI.kri:s/ potato /p.teI.t U/ Stressed syllable Unstressed syllable Unaspirated
  6. 6. Voiceless plosives preceded by /s/ in a syllable, they are produced without aspiration. scream /skri:m/ Spain /speIn/  All plosives in FP can be RELEASED or UNRELEASED, this means the air that was compressed behind the complete oral closure can be liberated or not. tip /tIp/ or /tIp / Unreleased Released with a bit of aspiration Meg /meg/ or /meg / talk /tO:k or /tO:k /
  7. 7. When there’re two plosives together in a cluster, the 1st is UNRELEASED and only the 2nd is RELEASED. stopped /stp t/ marked /mA:k t/ If a consonant is UNRELEASED, it is articulated but not produced
  8. 8.  ALLOPHONES of the /l/ phoneme o clear ^[l]: It resembles the /i/ sound, with the front of the tongue raised. (light, look) o It occurs before vowels; o it will never occur before a consonant or a pause; o dark []: It has a quality similar to the /u/ sound, with the back of the tongue raised. (milk, hold, call, trial) o it never occurs before vowels; o it is found when it precedes a consonant sound; o devoiced [l]: it means that it is produced without the voicing found in most realisation of this phoneme. (play, class) o it is found when it follows /p/ or /k/ at the beginning of a stressed syllable.
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