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English Allophones
English Allophones
English Allophones
English Allophones
English Allophones
English Allophones
English Allophones
English Allophones
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English Allophones

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English Phonetics and Phonology

English Phonetics and Phonology

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  • 1. ENGLISH PHONETICS and PHONOLOGY I – 2013 Prof. Adriana Gonzalez
  • 2. Let’s Remember…  What is a PHONEME? It is the smallest contrastive phonological unit.
  • 3. What are MINIMAL PAIRS? “Minimal Pairs are words in which all the sounds or phonemes are the same except for one. They show that a change in a phoneme implies a change in meaning.” hat /ht/ heart /hA:t/ bit /bIt/ beat /bi:t/ van /vn/ fan /fn/
  • 4. What areALLOPHONES?  Allophones are sounds, while Phonemes are sets of such sounds;  They are the variations of those phonemes.
  • 5.  Because the reléase stage is so abrupt when we are producing voiceless plosives /p/ /t/ /k/ in IP in stressed / accented syllables, these sounds have a slight variation: They are ASPIRATED. Aspiration is a voiceless interral or a puff of air between the release of the voiceless plosives and the following sound. complain /km.pleIn/ retain /rI.teIn/ decrease /dI.kri:s/ potato /p.teI.t U/ Stressed syllable Unstressed syllable Unaspirated
  • 6. Voiceless plosives preceded by /s/ in a syllable, they are produced without aspiration. scream /skri:m/ Spain /speIn/  All plosives in FP can be RELEASED or UNRELEASED, this means the air that was compressed behind the complete oral closure can be liberated or not. tip /tIp/ or /tIp / Unreleased Released with a bit of aspiration Meg /meg/ or /meg / talk /tO:k or /tO:k /
  • 7. When there’re two plosives together in a cluster, the 1st is UNRELEASED and only the 2nd is RELEASED. stopped /stp t/ marked /mA:k t/ If a consonant is UNRELEASED, it is articulated but not produced
  • 8.  ALLOPHONES of the /l/ phoneme o clear ^[l]: It resembles the /i/ sound, with the front of the tongue raised. (light, look) o It occurs before vowels; o it will never occur before a consonant or a pause; o dark []: It has a quality similar to the /u/ sound, with the back of the tongue raised. (milk, hold, call, trial) o it never occurs before vowels; o it is found when it precedes a consonant sound; o devoiced [l]: it means that it is produced without the voicing found in most realisation of this phoneme. (play, class) o it is found when it follows /p/ or /k/ at the beginning of a stressed syllable.

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