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Semantic web meetup – sparql tutorial


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A basic SPARQL tutorial.

A basic SPARQL tutorial.

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  • 1. SPARQL Tutorial@TarguMures Semantic Web Meetup
    June 22, 2011
    Adonis Damian
  • 2. Introduction - SPARQL
    SPARQL is a query language/engine for RDF graphs.
    An RDF graph is a set of triples. A flexible and extensible way to represent information about resources
    A concept similar to SQL for data bases. A W3C standard query language to fetch data from distributed Semantic Web data models.
    Can query a triple store or data on the Web (at a given URL). It provides facilities to:
    extract information in the form of URIs, blank nodes, plain and typed literals.
    extract RDF subgraphs.
    construct new RDF graphs based on information in the queried graphs
  • 3. What is RDF?
    RDF is a data model of graphs of subject, predicate, object triples.
    Resources are represented with URIs, which can be abbreviated as prefixed names
    Objects can be literals: strings, integers, booleans, etc.
  • 4. Short Ontology Introduction
  • 5. Reasoning OWL
  • 6. A SPARQL query comprises, in order:
    Prefix declarations, for abbreviating URIs
    Dataset definition, stating what RDF graph(s) are being queried
    A result clause, identifying what information to return from the query
    The query pattern, specifying what to query for in the underlying dataset
    Query modifiers, slicing, ordering, and otherwise rearranging query results
    # prefix declarations
    PREFIX foo:
    # dataset definition
    FROM ...
    # result clause
    SELECT ...
    # query pattern
    WHERE { ... }
    # query modifiers
    ORDER BY ...
  • 7. SPARQL Landscape
    SPARQL 1.0 became a standard in January, 2008, and included:
    SPARQL 1.0 Query Language
    SPARQL 1.0 Protocol
    SPARQL Results XML Format
    SPARQL 1.1 is in-progress, and includes:
    Updated 1.1 versions of SPARQL Query and SPARQL Protocol
    SPARQL 1.1 Update
    SPARQL 1.1 Uniform HTTP Protocol for Managing RDF Graphs
    SPARQL 1.1 Service Descriptions
    SPARQL 1.1 Basic Federated Query
  • 8. First Query
    Query DBPedia at
    Give me all the objects that are a person
    SELECT ?person
    WHERE {
    ?person rdf:typefoaf:Person.
    SPARQL variables start with a ? and can match any node (resource or literal) in the RDF dataset.
    Triple patterns are just like triples, except that any of the parts of a triple can be replaced with a variable.
    The SELECT result clause returns a table of variables and values that satisfy the query.
  • 9. Multiple triple patterns
    Give me all the people that had a Nobel Prize idea
    SELECT ?person ?idea
    WHERE {
    ?person rdf:typefoaf:Person.
    ?person <> ?idea.
    SELECT *
    WHERE {
    ?person a foaf:Person;
    <> ?idea.
    We can use multiple triple patterns to retrieve multiple properties about a particular resource
    Shortcut: SELECT * selects all variables mentioned in the query
    User a instead of rdf:type
    Use ; to refer to the same subject
  • 10. Multiple triple patterns: traversing a graph
    Find me all the artists that were born in Brazil
    SELECT *
    WHERE {
    ?person a <>;
    <> ?birthPlace.
    ?birthPlace <> ?country.
    ?country rdfs:label "Brazil"@en.
    Birth Place
  • 11. Limit the number of results
    Find me 50 example concepts in the DBPedia dataset.
    SELECT DISTINCT ?concept
    WHERE {
    ?s a ?concept .
    } ORDER BY DESC(?concept)
    LIMIT 50
    LIMIT is a solution modifier that limits the number of rows returned from a query. SPARQL has two other solution modifiers:
    ORDER BY for sorting query solutions on the value of one or more variables
    OFFSET, used in conjunction with LIMIT and ORDER BY to take a slice of a sorted solution set (e.g. for paging)
    The DISTINCT modifier eliminates duplicate rows from the query results.
  • 12. Basic SPARQL filters
    Find me all landlocked countries with a population greater than 15 million.
    PREFIX rdfs: <>
    PREFIX type: <>
    PREFIX prop: <>
    SELECT ?country_name ?population
    WHERE {
    ?country a type:LandlockedCountries ;
    rdfs:label ?country_name ;
    prop:populationEstimate ?population .
    FILTER (?population > 15000000) .
    FILTER constraints use boolean conditions to filter out unwanted query results.
    Shortcut: a semicolon (;) can be used to separate multiple triple patterns that share the same subject. (?country is the shared subject above.)
    rdfs:label is a common predicate for giving a human-friendly label to a resource.
    Note all the translated duplicates in the results. How can we deal with that?
  • 13. Basic SPARQL filters - language
    Find me all landlocked countries with a population greater than 15 million and show me their English name
    PREFIX rdfs: <>
    PREFIX type: <>
    PREFIX prop: <>
    SELECT ?country_name ?population
    WHERE {
    ?country a type:LandlockedCountries ;
    rdfs:label ?country_name ;
    prop:populationEstimate ?population .
    FILTER (?population > 15000000) .
    FILTER (lang(?country_name) = "en") .
  • 14. Filters using a range
    Find me all the artists born in Austria in the 19thsencury
    SELECT *
    WHERE {
    ?person a <>;
    <> ?birthPlace.
    ?birthPlace <> ?country.
    ?country rdfs:label "Austria"@en.
    ?person <> ?dob
    FILTER (?dob > "1/1/1800"^^xsd:date &&
    ?dob < "12/31/1899"^^xsd:date)
  • 15. SPARQL built-in filter functions
    Logical: !, &&, ||
    Math: +, -, *, /
    Comparison: =, !=, >, <, ...
    SPARQL tests: isURI, isBlank, isLiteral, bound
    SPARQL accessors: str, lang, datatype
    Other: sameTerm, langMatches, regex
  • 16. Finding artists' info - the wrong way
    Find all Jamendo artists along with their image, home page, and the location they're near.
    PREFIX mo: <>
    PREFIX foaf: <>
    SELECT ?name ?img ?hp ?loc
    WHERE {
    ?a amo:MusicArtist ;
    foaf:name ?name ;
    foaf:img ?img ;
    foaf:homepage ?hp ;
    foaf:based_near ?loc .
    Jamendo has information on about 3,500 artists.
    Trying the query, though, we only get 2,667 results. What's wrong?
    Query at:'sJamendo-specific SPARQL endpoint
  • 17. Finding artists' info - the right way
    PREFIX mo: <>
    PREFIX foaf: <>
    SELECT ?name ?img ?hp ?loc
    WHERE {
    ?a amo:MusicArtist ;
    foaf:name ?name .
    OPTIONAL { ?a foaf:img ?img }
    OPTIONAL { ?a foaf:homepage ?hp }
    OPTIONAL { ?a foaf:based_near ?loc }
    OPTIONAL tries to match a graph pattern, but doesn't fail the whole query if the optional match fails.
    If an OPTIONAL pattern fails to match for a particular solution, any variables in that pattern remain unbound (no value) for that solution.
  • 18. Querying alternatives
    Find me everything about Hawaii
    SELECT ?property ?hasValue ?isValueOf
    WHERE {
    { <> ?property ?hasValue }
    { ?isValueOf ?property <> }
    The UNION keyword forms a disjunction of two graph patterns. Solutions to both sides of the UNION are included in the results.
  • 19. RDF Datasets
    We said earlier that SPARQL queries are executed against RDF datasets, consisting of RDF graphs.
    So far, all of our queries have been against a single graph. In SPARQL, this is known as the default graph.
    RDF datasets are composed of the default graph and zero or more named graphs, identified by a URI.
    Named graphs can be specified with one or more FROM NAMED clauses, or they can be hardwired into a particular SPARQL endpoint.
    The SPARQL GRAPH keyword allows portions of a query to match against the named graphs in the RDF dataset. Anything outside a GRAPH clause matches against the default graph.
  • 20. RDF Datasets
  • 21. Querying named graphs
    Find me people who have been involved with at least three ISWC or ESWC conference events.
    SELECT DISTINCT ?person ?name
    WHERE {
    ?person foaf:name ?name .
    GRAPH ?g1 { ?person a foaf:Person }
    GRAPH ?g2 { ?person a foaf:Person }
    GRAPH ?g3 { ?person a foaf:Person }
    FILTER(?g1 != ?g2 && ?g1 != ?g3 && ?g2 != ?g3) .
    N.B. The FILTER assures that we're finding a person who occurs in three distinct graphs.
    N.B. The Web interface we use for this SPARQL query defines the foaf: prefix, which is why we omit it here.
    Try it with the SPARQL endpoint.
  • 22. Transforming between vocabularies
    Convert FOAF data to VCard data.
    PREFIX vCard: <>
    PREFIX foaf: <>
    ?X vCard:FN ?name .
    ?X vCard:URL ?url .
    ?X vCard:TITLE ?title .
    FROM <>
    WHERE {
    OPTIONAL { ?X foaf:name ?name . FILTER isLiteral(?name) . }
    OPTIONAL { ?X foaf:homepage ?url . FILTER isURI(?url) . }
    OPTIONAL { ?X foaf:title ?title . FILTER isLiteral(?title) . }
    The result RDF graph is created by taking the results of the equivalent SELECT query and filling in the values of variables that occur in the CONSTRUCT template.
    Triples are not created in the result graph.
    Try it with ARQ or OpenLink's Virtuoso. (Expected results.)
  • 23. ASKing a question
    Is the Amazon river longer than the Nile River?
    PREFIX prop: <>
    <> prop:length ?amazon .
    <> prop:length ?nile .
    FILTER(?amazon > ?nile) .
    As with SELECT queries, the boolean result is (by default) encoded in an SPARQL Results Format XML document.
    Shortcut: the WHERE keyword is optional--not only in ASK queries but in all SPARQL queries.
  • 24. Learning about a resource
    Tell me whatever you'd like to tell me about the Amazon river.
    PREFIX prop: <>
    DESCRIBE ?amazon
    ?amazon rdfs:label "Amazon River"@en.
    Because the server is free to interpret DESCRIBE as it sees fit, DESCRIBE queries are not interoperable.
    Common implementations include concise-bounded descriptions, named graphs, minimum self-contained graphs, etc
  • 25. What’s new in SPARQL 1.1
    Learn about SPARQL 1.1 by David Becket