Objectives To know the consequences of man’s behaviour as influenced by his hereditary make-up and his interaction with the society and culture in which he lives. To understand the factors that help shape the individual’s personality; and To use man’s knowledge in producing a more responsive personality that will interact and become useful to our goals.
What is Personality? The term personality was taken from the two Latin words “per” and “sonare” which means “to sound through”. The two words were later coined to “persona” meaning “an actor’s mask through which the sound of his voice was projected. Traditionally, in Greek plays, the actors wore mask while performing in the theatre. Persona was, therefore, referred to the actor who was role playing.
What is Personality? Personality is the total person. It includes the human being’s inborn traits and habits acquired through interaction with others beginning with the members of his family (psychological characteristics), his body structure, movements, and mannerisms everything that comprises a person as a whole whether psychological or physiological that makes him so distinct from every other individual in addition to his unique relation to others in his environment.
THE SELF CONCEPTS Self and Personality – “Self” is the core of personality, the totality of a person’s reactions, outwardly or inwardly, in the conditions in his environment and the unique manner in which he adjusts to such situations. This self comes out when interacting with other gradually and normally. It can be modified depending as the environment changes.
THE SELF CONCEPTS A child’s first experience of obtaining integration starts from his family members. As he gets the feel of people and things around him, he learns to distinguish what are his own and those which are not. Whatever description is given by the members of his family and playmates about him, he accepts it as description of himself. If the parents often criticize and rejects him, he will think of himself as undesirable and unwanted. On the other hand, doting parents who always praise the child even if his performance is poor will have an exaggerated impressions of his abilities and achievements. The unwanted or always praised experience of the child is carried with him throughout his life.
THE SELF CONCEPTS Self image and projected Self – self image is what a person thinks he is that distinguishes him from another person. How a person behaves as seen and observed by other people is the projected self of an individual. It is not often true that what one perceives about himself may be the same as the perception of others about him. Our behaviour is strongly influenced by how favourable we look to other people. The development of personality, therefore, revolves around the concept of the self in its relation to other selves in the human group to which a person belongs.
THE SELF CONCEPTS Self-esteem – is a person’s reaction to other people’s opinions about him or his projected self. This greatly affects the personality of that person. If people look down on him, he may develop an anti-social behaviour. If his own society has a very high regard for him, always praising him for his performances, he may become self centred or conceited. Building up an individual’s healthy self must begin during early childhood so that it will not be in serious conflict with reality. A healthy self-concept essentially agrees with the projected self. A healthy person, therefore, is someone who
THE SELF CONCEPTS Personality versus Overt Behaviour – Personality is not overt behaviour but the preparations of an individual in coping up with his environment. These preparations include habits, traits, attributes, values, sentiments and motivations. Since these are not directly observed, they are assumed as overt behaviour. Behaviour, on the other hand, is the result of the interaction of personality with different situations and groups identifications. How a person behaves is partly determined by what is expected by people in his social group, like when he is working in his office, attending party, or when he is together with the members of his family.
THE SELF CONCEPTS Personality Stereotypes – Through overt behaviour, we are able to make differences about man’s personality. However, it would be unfair to label a person the “happy-go-lucky type” or “conservative type” simply because of what you hear from the opinions of others. Observations are usually biased. Anyone can just create the impression that a person’s ways are favourable or unfavourable, thereby twisting his personality profile.
Factors in personalitydevelopment Behavioural scientists state that heredity or environment play an equally important role in shaping one’s personality. Both heredity and environment are determinants as to what kind of a person will emerge and what his intelligence, abilities, capacity for learning, aptitude, and psychological characteristics will be. In the study of personality development, the individual’s behaviour must be analyzed in its organized totality in which these two factors – heredity and environment – play equally important roles.
Factors in personalitydevelopment Heredity includes all that a person possesses as transmitted from parents to offspring by means of the germ plasm. From their ancestors, individuals inherit certain mental and physical attributes. However, genetic factors are not determines of an individual’s personality characteristics but, in a way, influence the development of a dynamic whole beyond the control of environmental forces. If what one inherits cannot be changed, he should concentrate on the characteristics that can be altered or modified to improve his position in life.
Biological Heritage of Man The musculator, glandular and nervous system are the three biological heritage physiological factors that play an important role in the personality development of human being. Adequate adjustive behaviour is dependent upon the maturation of the muscular, skeletal, glandular, and nervous structures of the individual. As a person grows older, his height and weight increase, his entire nervous system becomes more complex, his muscles develop in strength, and his glandular system undergoes important changes. These maturation processes are closely associated with the behavioural development of an individual.
Biological Heritage of Man Musculature – Muscles do play an important role in the whole setup of human behaviour and they maintain stability when relaxed. When there is a tension due to fear or anxiety, there is an increased muscle activity. The smooth muscles of the stomach and the intestines are also greatly affected when there is tension and his digestive process in disturbed. Physical growth during childhood and adolescence also brings about changes in personality. For instance, by the time the individual has reached physical maturity, the proportionate size of the head is much smaller than during infancy, whereas the trunk and limbs are proportionally longer. These changes greatly increase the grace and efficiency of the individual’s body movements.
Biological Heritage of Man A child whose muscular development during early childhood is slow, fails to perform some actions because he lacks sufficient muscle maturity. Muscular development, however, rapidly picks up during the onset of adolescence when the individual begins to “fill out” and approach adult height and proportions.
Biological Heritage of Man Glandular – The glands yield an influence on the mental, emotional, physical traits of men. They produce certain chemical substances that influence changes in personality. Differences in traits of character “disposition” are often attributed to their influence. There are two classes of glands. The first, and more easily understood, are those that have tubes or ducts connected to some other surface of the body like tear glands, or the Gail bladder. The other kind of glands are those that pour their products directly into the blood stream without the aid of ducts. The latter is call glands or endocrine
Biological Heritage of Man The endocrine glands influence the course of development by their secretion of chemical substances known as hormones. Hormones control the rates of certain bodily process associated with the maturation. They speed up and slow down, start and stop various physiological activities. For example, the change of voice in the adolescent boy is associated with the activity of certain glands which become active during this period. Whether an individual; depends on the combined action of several glands in the endocrine system.
Biological Heritage of Man The thyroid glands, for instance influence physical and mental development. The behaviour that is manifested in the under secretion of the thyroid gland frequently results in cretinism or mental backwardness and in lack of size and physical development, obesity and laziness. Over secretion results in a great stimulation of the nervous system which brings about restlessness, over excitement, irritability, and in extreme cases, the eyeballs are protruding.
Biological Heritage of Man The pituitary gland is associated directly with physical development. A small structure attached to the underside of the brain and located right in the centre of the head, the pituitary secrets hormones that are concerned with the growth hormones may result in such abnormal conditions as dwarfism, giantism, or acromegaly (long jaws and enlarged hands).
Biological Heritage of Man The adrenal glands produce the adrenal endrogens hormones that regulate the development of certain adult sexual characteristics, particularly those associated with the masculinity. The adrenal hormones which work in conjunction with other endrogens produced by the sex glands are partly responsible for adult hair distribution and lowering of the voice. Thus, over activity can lead to a condition known as virilism which may occur in either sex.
Biological Heritage of Man The nervous system is a means of receiving impulses. It is the system which gives man his every contact with his experience with others. It furnishes every satisfaction and dissatisfaction, every pain and delight, and every association made to his group around him. The nervous system has two parts – the cerebro- spinal or central nervous system and the automatic or sympathetic nervous system. It is the central nervous system which is the seat of consciousness and learning, of the will and of the coordination of all responses and movements due to sensations.
Biological Heritage of Man The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. It is through the brain that man’s mind is developed. All sense impressions and all activities of the mind take place somewhere in the cells of the brain. Due to its intricately interwoven neurons which are inter connected endlessly, the central nervous system controls such important functions as memory, imagination, thinking, and will power.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The environmental factors that influence personality development are: Home and family Culture Roles Social agents
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Home and Family – The home is where a child’s first experience in social interaction takes place. He first becomes aware that he lives in a society of people and that his attitudes and actions are influenced by people’s reactions. Children learn by role perception. A son learns how to act like a man by the image identification he has with his father. Similarly, a daughter learns to assume the role of a wife and a mother by watching her mother. The assimilate many of the personality characteristics and behaviour patterns of their parents.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The parents bring to their child the influences of the community. Parents exemplify human relationships. He observes how people deal with each other, their relationship sets a pattern for all inter personal relationships in the family. The child acquires his parents characteristics and patterns of adjustment. He acquires their values and ideals, their attitudes and beliefs. The example that the parents show has a far greater impact on the child that the words they say, or advices that they may give.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The Filipino family is a basic economic unit. Family life ordinarily involves the practice of pooling money resources. The extent to which incomes are pooled varies from family to family. The poorer the family, the more likely that its pooled earnings are derived from the work of several members. This is not a matter deliberate choice, but of stern necessity. The older children generally contribute to the support of the family.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Culture – Culture must not be interpreted as the refinement of an individual in terms of breeding or education. Neither should it be associated with aesthetics such as art galleries, symphonies, poetry, drama and the like. Every man is born into a society refined by culture. Society is defined as a group of people who interact with each other, whose activities become centred around a set of goals, and who tend to share common beliefs, attitudes and modes of action. Culture refers to a way of life reflected in the customs, traditions, folkways, mores and
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS An anthropologist uses culture to refer to a much broader range of phenomena. A “culture” includes all of the expectation, understanding, belief, or agreements which influence the behaviour of member of some human groups. Children’s acquired culture is referred to by social psychologists as enculturation, a process by which man’s social behaviour and his thoughts become conditioned by his cultural heritage. When we adopt cultural traits of others, then we refer to this as acculturation.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Every culture or sub culture has its owns particular set of norms and values to which every member of the society must conform. Norms are the standards of behaviour prescribed by the society of its members. They determine how people should behave in accordance with their sex, age, socio-economic status, occupation. Norms regulate the relationship of people towards one another. For instance, the children in typical Filipino family keep quiet when they are scolded; they obey without question what their parent want them to do, even in the choice of a career and marriage partner. Americans criticize Filipinos for this behaviour pattern but the norms in the Philippines differ from those in the United States.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The norms of society are influenced by the values that prevail. When a society values honesty, industry and patience, the individual is trained and taught to be honest, hardworking and patient. The family, the school, the community and the other social agents are the channels or conveyors of values and ideals which an individual learns to accept through cultural conditioning. Values are transmitted through teaching, training and example of one’s conduct.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Culture is the matrix of personality. Every culture develops a personality structure of its own. The idea fits in with the concept of “national character” whereby Filipinos have distinct characteristics and differentiate them from the Americans or Japanese.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ROLES – roles are anticipated behaviour patterns attached to a certain position or status. Status, on the other hand, refers to the position occupied by an individual in the society. All of us occupy a series of statuses. Each one is accompanied by a corresponding roles with the expected behaviour pattern.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS An individual can have as many statuses, in accordance with the (a) age – sex , (b) family and kinship, (c) socio-economic class, (d) occupation, and (e) friendship and interest. Thus, a young girl ( age, sex, status ) is a daughter and the eldest child in a middle class family. She is also a student in the evening and secretary of sorority in school and a member of the Student Catholic Action. One has many roles as he has multiple statuses. In the process of growing, the individual learns to behave in ways acceptable to others and to avoid actions that will bring punishment or disapproval. Influenced by various social groups ( family, school, peer groups, etc ) he conforms to a set
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS In every society, the social roles of the sexes are somewhat distinct. A male learns to behave in particular ways appropriate for males. Each age level is also accompanied by certain social expectations so that there is, in effect, a society of small boys, small girls, young boys, young girls, young man, young women, mature men, mature women, old men and old women. Each learn to behave in a manner designed specifically for his role. The social role, is enforced in much the same way as the role of a character in a play is enforced upon the player. The other members of the cast of the play or of real-life situations expect the individual to behave in accordance with the role age and other factors that
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS As a man who now belongs to an occupational group, he assumes another role depending upon his profession or the nature of his work. For example, if he is a teacher, he is expected to be idealistic and concerned over the students, dedicated in sharing and communicating his knowledge. If he is a businessman, his behaviour, attitudes, motivations and values tend to differ. The businessman is expected to be calculating, aggressive, and greatly motivated by economic factors.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Marriage and parenthood are also roles that exact demands upon the individual. In marriage, both the husband and wife give up certain liberties and privileges they previously are engaged. A husband protects and provides for his wife and children. A mother is dedicated to her home, loves and cares for her husband and children. In our society, there is a tendency for traditional elders to frown upon and criticize the mother who bottle-feeds her baby instead of personally nursing him unless there is a valid reason.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Parents are expected to provide for their children, nurture them, and equip them with the necessary education and moral training – all in preparation for the time when these children will assume their positions as responsible adult citizens and members of a society. Children, on the other hand, are expected to show obedience and respect for their elders. In most social systems like the Philippines the elders are given more rights. The oldest son and daughter who are traditionally called “kuya” and “ate” by their younger brothers and sisters, assume certain rights and prerogatives not accorded to the
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Roles differ for each of the three basic socio- economic classes of society; the upper class, the middle class, and the lower class. For instance, the wealthy upper class families are expected to send their children to exclusive schools, shop in exclusive stores, engage in “genteel” occupations by becoming a proprietor, or a doctor. There are different social expectancies for lower classes. One who belongs to the lower class is expected to confine his purchase to the items that are within his means until such time when he is able to afford expensive items.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS If the role on one status conflicts with that of another, there is said to be a role conflict, and the individual experiences are a great deal of anxiety and tension. Status discrepancy refers to any difference between the rank of an individual in one status system and his rank in another status system. Thus, a labor leader may have a high rank in the power status system but low rank in the social class status systems.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS SOCIAL AGENTS – The school, the church, and other social institutions are also instrumental in molding the individual into a wholesome, dynamic, and assertive personality. The school is often thought of as an institution to which parents send their children for intellectual training. The school helps in the development of the intellectual, physical, social, emotional, and moral components of personality. By giving worthwhile training and experience, the school encourages students to mature with the right sense of values.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The school surroundings and the teachers play vital roles in the teaching and experiencing of values in children. Clean surroundings, no matter how small the schoolhouse, add to the experience of the value of cleanliness. The teacher is considered important because he “stands between the immature learner and the vast culture of the race as guide and interpreter.” Thus, it becomes the responsibility of the teacher to be sensitive to the needs and innate potentialities of the school child, and to fill the gap left by the home.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The church has its own unique contribution to the formation of the individual’s personality. Unique in a sense that it has a mission, a commitment in helping both the home and the community to develop high sense of values in the young. The church is a social unit of society which influences the development of right values. The church is composed of a group of people who share a common belief with an affirmation of their faith and who follow the teachings and precepts of the church doctrines. People constitute the church, which cannot exist without people. Moral values, beliefs and percepts of the church take their first root in the home. The life of a man is identified with the church and is related to the established religious culture that men want to live a good, happy life.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The environmental factors, as well as the hereditary characteristics, have their own distinct contribution to the personality growth of the individual. As a whole it is desired to develop men of good health, intelligence, integrity, dependability, indust ry, high sense of values and moral character. Our society need disciplined men who can give their best, in the interest of sharing in the building of our nation’s economy.
Personality and Social Interaction Personality constantly adjusts to its environment. Individuals undergo an endless process of exchange of reactions and responses. Social interaction is a process stated that the three basic factors towards which Filipino react strongly and which they value highly are social acceptance, economic security, and social mobility. These are considered the motivating forces that drive the Filipinos towards the need to be identified as having the biggest house within the vicinity, a piano, a radio, a piece of land he calls his own, a barn to store grain, a car, a television, a stereo phone, and other status
Personality and Social Interaction Filipinos also take pride in have studied in exclusive private schools or having gone to foreign countries. As he strives to gain recognition and acceptance, the Filipino parent works hard and sacrifices much to the extent that he is willing to sell his possessions so that he can send an older child to school. He is hopeful that when his son or daughter eventually graduates and receives a college diploma, to school for an education and thus establish the family’s status within the community.
Personality and Social Interaction Father Bulatao’s study on Filipino values was more or less confined to that of the Manileno’s. Making use of a self devised projective test which is called the Philippine Thematic Appreciation Test (PTAT), adopted from Henry Murray’s TAT, he studied 50 men and 40 women whose age levels ranged from 18 to 35 years. Father Bulatao classified Philippine values into four categories. 1. Economic and emotional closeness and security in the family 2. Authority 3. Economic and social betterment
Personality and Social Interaction The results point to the importance of the family as the starting point in the acquisition of the above values. All other values studied seem to centre on the “authority value in general. All other characteristics observed among Filipinos such as traditionalism, “hiya” and “amor propio” find their roots in family training. Father Bulatao, in another study, categorized the values of Filipino consumer into what he called personalism, authoritarianism, and small group centeredness.
Personality and Social Interaction One of the studies of the anthropologist Mary R. Hollnsteiner indicate that Filipino place is emphasis on the value of social acceptance and approval. She described “pakikisama” as a characteristics unique to the Filipino and explain this as the need of the individual to seek his groups acceptance and approval by unquestioningly following the norms setup for him at times, to the extent of sacrificing the welfare of his family. When one considers the undesirable statuses ascribed to deviants, it becomes easily to understand why Filipinos have a strong desire to by which two or more persons are engaged in an exchange of goods, material or non material, whereby the behaviour of one is changed by behaviour of the other. The change may be for good or for worst. This interpersonal relationship affects the personality of the individual. Social interaction, therefore becomes the very essence of
Personality and Social Interaction Social interaction always involves a sense of mutual obligation or interdependence. Social interaction is significant not only in the adjustment of the individual with his social group but also in maintaining stability of the organization where he works. The personality of an individual is determined by the group he socially interacts with, the way they behave and the way they evaluate him. The groups evaluation, expectations, and behaviours patterns greatly affect the person. These factors become determinant in the personality dynamics of the individual. He may changed by the group or he
Personality and Social Interaction Individual Differences and Social interaction – Individual differences, in the context of their personal needs and values, play an important role in social interaction. This is one reason why people generally seek to socially interact with groups whose condition and standards suit their personal needs and values. Social interaction in an organization will have laborers who associate and interact with fellow laborers and not with foreman; supervisors interact with other supervisors and not with vice-presidents. Their standards of identifying with their peer group in their work area. When both are of the same level of work area they tend to have a more effective social interaction as one enhances the other. Social interaction tends to bind people together thus strengthening their performances and cooperation.
Filipino values and Personality Behavioural scientist in the Philippines are much interested in the study of Filipino values in order to understand the traits and behaviour patterns of Filipinos. Frank Lynch, S.J., Jaime Bulatao, S.J. Mary R. Hollnsteiner, John Carrol, S.J., Beinvinido Lumbrera, Vitalino F. Gorosper, S.J. and George M. Guthrie are among those whose studies have shed light on the Filipino personality. Lynch, in his study of lowland Philippine values, conform to group standards.
Filipino values and Personality Guthrie’s study of the Filipino personality structure was based on national character types. He describes the favourable and unfavourable cultural traits observable among Filipinos and enumerated some unfavourable national characteristics such as “amor propio”, “bahala na”, “ningas cogon”, the mañana” habit, inferiority, extravagance, persistence of old beliefs, non interference and competitiveness. On the other hand, he also listed a number of favourable traits like modesty, politeness, gentleness, loyalty, hospitalit y, and love for music.
Filipino values and Personality Today, more and more behavioural scientist in the country are moving forward by making intensive studies of the value system so as to shed greater light on the behavioural patterns of the Filipinos. Current values will then be replaced by one that are more responsive to our modern society. Although change is difficult, change is inevitable. The Filipino must change these old established patterns and values which are no longer functional in our present times.
How Personality may beimproved? Improvement of every individual’s personality may be achieved by following the given suggestions: Lead a well balanced healthy life. Develop good eating habits and don’t neglect exercise. Believe in yourself. Think that you can succeed if you work hard and determine to learn and discipline yourself. Know what you want for yourself. Determine your likes and dislikes, your abilities, needs resources and plans. Know what you can do and what you are capable of doing. Maintain an even disposition no matter how difficult is the situation. Direct your basic emotions into worthwhile constructive activities.
How Personality may beimproved? Accept your own shortcomings. Do not change what cannot be changed but try to change and improved what can be changed Make friend with the right people. One of the most important and useful personal traits is the ability to cultivate and maintain good friends. Develop a “ you” attitude in all dealings with people. Most people think only of themselves. Focus on the other person’s interests rather than yours. Be an achiever in the business of life. Investment in time and energy will bring you great dividends in terms of happy and healthy life.
How Personality may beimproved? If you are considerate with welfare of others your life will become more fruitful and happy. Know what you want from life, where you want to go, and what you want to do. Set definite goals in the right direction in life. Success is made up of little things we share with others.
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.