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HTML Basics                      HTML, Text, Images, Tables, FormsSvetlin NakovTelerik Corporationwww.telerik.com
Table of Contents1.   Introduction to HTML      How the Web Works?      What is a Web Page?      My First HTML Page    ...
Table of Contents (2)      The <body> Section      Text Styling and Formatting Tags      Hyperlinks: <a> Tag      Hype...
How the Web Works? WWW use classical   client / server architecture  HTTP is text-based request-response protocol       ...
What is a Web Page? Web pages are text files containing   HTML HTML – Hyper Text Markup      Language   A notation for ...
Creating HTML Pages An HTML file must have an   .htm or .html file extension HTML files can be created with text editors...
HTML BasicsText, Images, Tables, Forms
First HTML Pagetest.html<html>  <head>    <title>My First HTML Page</title>  </head>  <body>     This is some text that wi...
First HTML Page: Tags<html>          Opening tag  <head>    <title>My First HTML Page</title>  </head>  <body>            ...
First HTML Page: Header            HTML header<html>  <head>    <title>My First HTML Page</title>  </head>  <body>     Thi...
First HTML Page: Body<html>  <head>    <title>My First HTML Page</title>  </head>  <body>     This is some text that will ...
Some Simple Tags Hyperlink Tags  <a href="http://www.telerik.com/"    title="Telerik">Link to Telerik Web site</a> Image...
Some Simple Tags – Examplesome-tags.html<html>  <body>    <a href="http://www.devbg.org/" title=     "BASD">This is a link...
Some Simple Tags – Example (2)some-tags.html<html>  <body>    <a href="http://www.devbg.org/" title=     "BASD">This is a ...
Some HTML Tags    Live Demo
Tags Attributes Tags could have attributes   Attributes specify their properties and behavior   Example:           Attr...
Headings and Paragraphs Heading Tags  <h1>Heading 1</h1>  <h2>Sub heading 2</h2>  <h3>Sub heading 3</h3> Paragraph Tags ...
Headings and Paragraphs –                                  Exampleheadings.html<html>  <head><title>Headings and    paragr...
Headings and Paragraphs –                               Example (2)headings.html<html>  <head><title>Headings and    parag...
Headings and Paragraphs        Live Demo
Introduction to HTMLHTML Document Structure in Depth
The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration   At their beginning HTML documents must have a    document type declaration     It tells the...
HTML vs. XHTML XHTML is   more strict then HTML  All tags must be properly nested (HTML allows   <b><i>text</b></i>)  T...
XHTML vs. HTML (2) Many element attributes                       are deprecated in XHTML, most are moved to CSS Attribut...
HTML Structure   HTML is comprised of elements called “tags”     Begins with <html> and ends with </html>     When writ...
The <head> Section Contains information that doesn’t show  directly on the viewable page Starts after the <!doctype> dec...
<head> Section: <title> tag   Title should be placed between <head> and    </head> tags     <title>Telerik Academy – Wint...
<head> Section: <meta> Meta tags additionally                       describe the content contained within the page  <meta...
<head> Section: <script> The <script> </script> tag is used to embed scripts into an HTML document   Script are executed...
The <script> Tag – Example<html>                           scripts-example.html  <head>    <title>JavaScript Example</titl...
Using Scripts   Live Demo
<head> Section: <style>   The <style> </style> tag embeds formatting    information (CSS styles) into a HTML page    <htm...
Embedding CSS Styles       Live Demo
Comments: <!-- --> Tag Comments can exist anywhere between the <html></html> tags Comments start with <!-- and end with ...
<body> Section: Introduction The <body> section describes the viewable portion of the page Starts after the <head> </hea...
<body> Section: Attributes   The <body> tag has the following attributes:       background      Background image file    ...
Text Styling without CSS Text can be formatted          Different styles of as headings or regular           heading are...
Text Formatting   Text formatting tags modify the text between    the opening tag and the closing tag     Ex. <b>Hello</...
Text Formatting – Exampletext-formatting.html<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC  "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"  "http://www....
Text Formatting – Example (2)text-formatting.html<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC  "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"  "http://...
Text Formatting    Live Demo
Hyperlinks: <a> Tag Link to a document calledform.html on the same server in the same directory:  <a href="form.html">Fil...
Hyperlinks: <a> Tag (2) Link to an external Web site: <a href="http://www.devbg.org" target="_blank">BASD</a>   Always u...
Hyperlinks: <a> Tag (3) Link to a document called    apply-now.html   On the same server, in same directory   Using an ...
Hyperlinks and Sections   Link to another location in the same document:    <a href="#section1">Go to Introduction</a>   ...
Hyperlinks – Examplehyperlinks.html<a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a> <br/><a href="../parent.html">Parent</a> <br/><a ...
Hyperlinks – Example (2)hyperlinks.html<a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a> <br/><a href="../parent.html">Parent</a> <br/...
Hyperlinks  Live Demo
Links to the Same Document –                                Examplelinks-to-same-document.html<h1>Table of Contents</h1><p...
Links to the Same Document –                              Example (2)links-to-same-document.html<h1>Table of Contents</h1>...
Links to the Same Document          Live Demo
Images: <img> tag Inserting an image with <img> tag:  <img src="/img/basd-logo.png"> Image attributes:  src      Locatio...
Miscellaneous Tags <hr />: Draws a horizontal      rule (line):  <hr size="5" width="70%" /> <center></center>: Deprecat...
Miscellaneous Tags – Examplemisc.html<html>  <head>    <title>Miscellaneous Tags Example</title>  </head>  <body>    <hr s...
Miscellaneous Tags      Live Demo
Ordered Lists: <ol> Tag   Create an Ordered List using <ol></ol>:    <ol type="1">      <li>Apple</li>      <li>Orange</l...
Unordered Lists: <ul> Tag Create an Unordered List using      <ul></ul>:  <ul type="disk">    <li>Apple</li>    <li>Orang...
Definition lists: <dl> tag Create definition lists   using <dl>   Pairs of text and associated definition; text is in   ...
Lists – Example<html>                                   lists.html  <body>    <ol type="1">      <li>Apple</li>      <li>O...
Creating Lists   Live Demo
HTML Special Characters    Symbol Name             HTML Entity   Symbol     Copyright Sign           &copy;        ©Regist...
Special Characters – Example<html>                            special-chars.html<head>  <title>Special HTML Characters Exa...
Special Chars – Example (2)<html>                            special-chars.html<head>  <title>Special HTML Characters Exam...
HTML Special Characters        Live Demo
Using <DIV> and <SPAN>Block and Inline Elements
Block and Inline Elements Block elements act as if   there is a break before and after them   <div> is a block element  ...
The <div> Tag <div> creates logical   divisions within a page Block style element Used with CSS Example:  div-and-span...
<DIV>Live Demo
The <span> Tag Inline style element Useful for modifying a specific portion of text   Dont create a separate area    (p...
<SPAN>Live Demo
HTML BasicsQuestions?        http://academy.telerik.com
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  1. 1. HTML Basics HTML, Text, Images, Tables, FormsSvetlin NakovTelerik Corporationwww.telerik.com
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. Introduction to HTML  How the Web Works?  What is a Web Page?  My First HTML Page  Basic Tags: Hyperlinks, Images, Formatting  Headings and Paragraphs2. HTML in Details  The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration  The <head> Section: Title, Meta, Script, Style 2
  3. 3. Table of Contents (2)  The <body> Section  Text Styling and Formatting Tags  Hyperlinks: <a> Tag  Hyperlinks and Sections  Images: <img> tag  Lists: <ol> and <ul> Tag  HTML Special Characters3. The <div> and <span> Tags 3
  4. 4. How the Web Works? WWW use classical client / server architecture  HTTP is text-based request-response protocol HTTP Page request HTTP Server response Server running WebClient running a Server Software Web Browser (IIS Apache, etc.) 4
  5. 5. What is a Web Page? Web pages are text files containing HTML HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language  A notation for describing  document structure (semantic markup)  formatting (presentation markup)  Looks like:  A Microsoft Word document The markup tags tell the Web browser how to display the page 5
  6. 6. Creating HTML Pages An HTML file must have an .htm or .html file extension HTML files can be created with text editors:  NotePad, NotePad ++, PSPad Or HTML editors (WYSIWYG Editors):  Microsoft FrontPage  Macromedia Dreamweaver  Netscape Composer  Microsoft Word 6
  7. 7. HTML BasicsText, Images, Tables, Forms
  8. 8. First HTML Pagetest.html<html> <head> <title>My First HTML Page</title> </head> <body> This is some text that will appear on the web page. </body></html> 8
  9. 9. First HTML Page: Tags<html> Opening tag <head> <title>My First HTML Page</title> </head> <body> Closing tag This is some text that will appear on the web page. </body></html> 9
  10. 10. First HTML Page: Header HTML header<html> <head> <title>My First HTML Page</title> </head> <body> This is some text that will appear on the web page. </body></html> 10
  11. 11. First HTML Page: Body<html> <head> <title>My First HTML Page</title> </head> <body> This is some text that will appear on the web page. </body></html> HTML body 11
  12. 12. Some Simple Tags Hyperlink Tags <a href="http://www.telerik.com/" title="Telerik">Link to Telerik Web site</a> Image Tags <img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" /> Formatting tags <b>This text is bold</b> And this is <u>underlined</u> <center>Some centered text</center> 12
  13. 13. Some Simple Tags – Examplesome-tags.html<html> <body> <a href="http://www.devbg.org/" title= "BASD">This is a link to some URL</a> <br /> <img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" /> <br /> <b>This text is bold</b> <br /> And this is <u>underlined</u> <br /> <center>Some centered text</center> </body></html> 13
  14. 14. Some Simple Tags – Example (2)some-tags.html<html> <body> <a href="http://www.devbg.org/" title= "BASD">This is a link to some URL</a> <br /> <img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" /> <br /> <b>This text is bold</b> <br /> And this is <u>underlined</u> <br /> <center>Some centered text</center> </body></html> 14
  15. 15. Some HTML Tags Live Demo
  16. 16. Tags Attributes Tags could have attributes  Attributes specify their properties and behavior  Example: Attribute alt with value "logo" <img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" />  Few attributes that apply to every element:  id, style, class, title  The id is unique in the document  Content of title attribute is displayed as hint when element is hovered with mouse  Some elements have obligatory attributes 16
  17. 17. Headings and Paragraphs Heading Tags <h1>Heading 1</h1> <h2>Sub heading 2</h2> <h3>Sub heading 3</h3> Paragraph Tags <p>This is my first paragraph</p> <p>This is my second paragraph</p> Sections: div and span <div align="center" style= "background: skyblue">This is a div</div> 17
  18. 18. Headings and Paragraphs – Exampleheadings.html<html> <head><title>Headings and paragraphs</title></head> <body> <h1>Heading 1</h1> <h2>Sub heading 2</h2> <h3>Sub heading 3</h3> <p>This is my first paragraph</p> <p>This is my second paragraph</p> <div align="center" style="background:skyblue"> This is a div</div> </body></html> 18
  19. 19. Headings and Paragraphs – Example (2)headings.html<html> <head><title>Headings and paragraphs</title></head> <body> <h1>Heading 1</h1> <h2>Sub heading 2</h2> <h3>Sub heading 3</h3> <p>This is my first paragraph</p> <p>This is my second paragraph</p> <div align="center" style="background:skyblue"> This is a div</div> </body></html> 19
  20. 20. Headings and Paragraphs Live Demo
  21. 21. Introduction to HTMLHTML Document Structure in Depth
  22. 22. The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration At their beginning HTML documents must have a document type declaration  It tells the Web browsers how to handle the HTML data  Possible versions: HTML 2.0, HTML 3.2, HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0, XHTML 1.1, … Example: <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">  See http://www.w3.org/QA/2002/04/Web-Quality for a list of possible doctypes 22
  23. 23. HTML vs. XHTML XHTML is more strict then HTML  All tags must be properly nested (HTML allows <b><i>text</b></i>)  Tags and attribute names must be in lowercase  Attribute values must be in " " (HTML allows )  All tags must be closed (<br/>, <img/>) while HTML allows <br> and <img>  XHTML allows only one root <html> element (HTML allows more than one) 23
  24. 24. XHTML vs. HTML (2) Many element attributes are deprecated in XHTML, most are moved to CSS Attribute minimization is forbidden, e.g. <input type="checkbox" checked> <input type="checkbox" checked="checked" /> Note: Web browsers load XHTML faster than HTML and valid code faster than invalid! 24
  25. 25. HTML Structure HTML is comprised of elements called “tags”  Begins with <html> and ends with </html>  When writing XHTML, must define a namespace <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> Tags are nested one inside another: <html> <head></head> <body></body> </html> Tags have attributes: <img src="logo.jpg" alt="logo" /> HTML describes structure using two main sections: <head> and <body> 25
  26. 26. The <head> Section Contains information that doesn’t show directly on the viewable page Starts after the <!doctype> declaration Begins with <head> and ends with </head> Contains mandatory single <title> tag Can contain multiple nested tags, e. g.:  <meta>  <script>  <style>  <!– comments --> 26
  27. 27. <head> Section: <title> tag Title should be placed between <head> and </head> tags <title>Telerik Academy – Winter Season 2009/2010 </title> Used to specify a title to the Web page window Search engines and people rely on titles 27
  28. 28. <head> Section: <meta> Meta tags additionally describe the content contained within the page <meta name="description" content="HTML tutorial"> <meta name="keywords" content="html, web design, styles"> <meta name="author" content="Chris Brewer"> <meta http-equiv="refresh" content="5; url=http://www.telerik.com"> 28
  29. 29. <head> Section: <script> The <script> </script> tag is used to embed scripts into an HTML document  Script are executed in the clients Web browser  Scripts can live in the <head> and in the <body> sections Supported client-side scripting languages:  JavaScript (it is not Java!)  VBScript  JScript 29
  30. 30. The <script> Tag – Example<html> scripts-example.html <head> <title>JavaScript Example</title> <script type="text/javascript"> function sayHello() { document.write( "<p><b>Hello World!</b>"); } </script> </head> <body> <script type= "text/javascript"> sayHello(); </script> </body></html> 30
  31. 31. Using Scripts Live Demo
  32. 32. <head> Section: <style> The <style> </style> tag embeds formatting information (CSS styles) into a HTML page <html> style-example.html <head> <style type="text/css"> p { font-size: 12pt; line-height: 12pt } p:first-letter { font-size: 200%; float: left } span { text-transform: uppercase } </style> </head> <body> <p>Styles demo.</p> <span>Test uppercase</span>. </body> </html> 32
  33. 33. Embedding CSS Styles Live Demo
  34. 34. Comments: <!-- --> Tag Comments can exist anywhere between the <html></html> tags Comments start with <!-- and end with --> <!–- BASD Logo (it is a GIF file with transparent background) --> <img src="logo.gif" alt="BASD Logo"> <!–- Hyperlink to BASD official Web site --> <a href="http://www.devbg.org/">BASD Home</a> <!–- Show the news table --> <table class="newstable"> ... 34
  35. 35. <body> Section: Introduction The <body> section describes the viewable portion of the page Starts after the <head> </head> section Begins with <body> and ends with </body> <html> <head><title>Test page</title></head> <body> This is the Web page body! </body> </html> 35
  36. 36. <body> Section: Attributes The <body> tag has the following attributes: background Background image file ="URL" bgcolor Background color ="color" text Default text color ="color" link Hyperlink color ="color" vlink Visited hyperlink color ="color" Example: <body background="texture.gif" text="#238E23"> * For color codes, see www.webreference.com/html/tools/colorizer/ 36
  37. 37. Text Styling without CSS Text can be formatted  Different styles of as headings or regular heading are paragraph text available:  Use these consistently! <h1></h1> Heading 1 <p></p> by default <h2></h2> Heading 2 doubles the spaces <h3></h3> Heading 3 after each paragraph <h4></h4> Heading 4 <h5></h5> Heading 5 <br /> is weird: the <h6></h6> Heading 6 trailing “/” makes it <p></p> Paragraph XHTML compliant <br /> Line break 37
  38. 38. Text Formatting Text formatting tags modify the text between the opening tag and the closing tag  Ex. <b>Hello</b> makes “Hello” bold <b></b> bold <i></i> italicized <u></u> underlined <sup></sup> Samplesuperscript <sub></sub> Samplesubscript <strong></strong> strong <em></em> emphasized <pre></pre> Preformatted text <blockquote></blockquote> Quoted text block <del></del> Deleted text – strike through 38
  39. 39. Text Formatting – Exampletext-formatting.html<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html> <head> <title>Svetlin Nakov</title> </head> <body bgcolor="black" text="white" link="red" vlink="blue"> <h1>Notice</h1> <p>This is a <em>sample</em> Web page.</p> <p><pre>Next paragraph: preformatted.</pre></p> <h2>More Info</h2> <p>Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional.<br> Next line.</p> </body></html> 39
  40. 40. Text Formatting – Example (2)text-formatting.html<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html> <head> <title>Svetlin Nakov</title> </head> <body bgcolor="black" text="white" link="red" vlink="blue"> <h1>Notice</h1> <p>This is a <em>sample</em> Web page.</p> <p><pre>Next paragraph: preformatted.</pre></p> <h2>More Info</h2> <p>Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional.<br> Next line.</p> </body></html> 40
  41. 41. Text Formatting Live Demo
  42. 42. Hyperlinks: <a> Tag Link to a document calledform.html on the same server in the same directory: <a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a> Link to a document calledparent.html on the same server in the parent directory: <a href="../parent.html">Parent</a> Link to a document calledcat.html on the same server in the subdirectory stuff: <a href="stuff/cat.html">Catalog</a> 42
  43. 43. Hyperlinks: <a> Tag (2) Link to an external Web site: <a href="http://www.devbg.org" target="_blank">BASD</a>  Always use a full URL, including "http://", not just "www.somesite.com"  Using the target="_blank" attribute opens the link in a new window Link to an e-mail address: <a href="mailto:bugs@example.com?subject=Bug+Report"> Please report bugs here (by e-mail only)</a> 43
  44. 44. Hyperlinks: <a> Tag (3) Link to a document called apply-now.html  On the same server, in same directory  Using an image as a link button: <a href="apply-now.html"><img src="apply-now-button.jpg" /></a> Link to a document called index.html  On the same server, in the subdirectory english of the parent directory: <a href="../english/index.html">Switch to English version</a> 44
  45. 45. Hyperlinks and Sections Link to another location in the same document: <a href="#section1">Go to Introduction</a> ... <a name="section1">Introduction</a> Link to a specific location in another document: <a href="chapter3.html#section3.1.1">Go to Section 3.1.1</a> <!–- In chapter3.html --> ... <a name="section3.1.1"> <h3>3.1.1. Technical Background</h3> </a> 45
  46. 46. Hyperlinks – Examplehyperlinks.html<a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a> <br/><a href="../parent.html">Parent</a> <br/><a href="stuff/cat.html">Catalog</a> <br/><a href="http://www.devbg.org" target="_blank">BASD</a><br/><a href="mailto:bugs@example.com?subject=BugReport">Please report bugs here (by e-mail only)</a><br/><a href="apply-now.html"><img src="apply-now-button.jpg"border="0"/></a> <br/><a href="../english/index.html">Switch to Englishversion</a> <br/> 46
  47. 47. Hyperlinks – Example (2)hyperlinks.html<a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a> <br/><a href="../parent.html">Parent</a> <br/><a href="stuff/cat.html">Catalog</a> <br/><a href="http://www.devbg.org" target="_blank">BASD</a><br/><a href="mailto:bugs@example.com?subject=BugReport">Please report bugs here (by e-mail only)</a><br/><a href="apply-now.html"><img src="apply-now-button.jpg"border="0"/></a> <br/><a href="../english/index.html">Switch to Englishversion</a> <br/> 47
  48. 48. Hyperlinks Live Demo
  49. 49. Links to the Same Document – Examplelinks-to-same-document.html<h1>Table of Contents</h1><p><a href="#section1">Introduction</a><br/><a href="#section2">Some background</A><br/><a href="#section2.1">Project History</a><br/>...the rest of the table of contents...<!-- The document text follows here --><h2><a name="section1">Introduction</a></h2>... Section 1 follows here ...<h2><a name="section2">Some background</a></h2>... Section 2 follows here ...<h3><a name="section2.1">Project History</a></h3>... Section 2.1 follows here ... 49
  50. 50. Links to the Same Document – Example (2)links-to-same-document.html<h1>Table of Contents</h1><p><a href="#section1">Introduction</a><br/><a href="#section2">Some background</A><br/><a href="#section2.1">Project History</a><br/>...the rest of the table of contents...<!-- The document text follows here --><h2><a name="section1">Introduction</a></h2>... Section 1 follows here ...<h2><a name="section2">Some background</a></h2>... Section 2 follows here ...<h3><a name="section2.1">Project History</a></h3>... Section 2.1 follows here ... 50
  51. 51. Links to the Same Document Live Demo
  52. 52. Images: <img> tag Inserting an image with <img> tag: <img src="/img/basd-logo.png"> Image attributes: src Location of image file (relative or absolute) alt Substitute text for display (e.g. in text mode) align Text alignment: bottom, middle, top height Number of pixels of the height width Number of pixels of the width border Size of border, 0 for no border Example: <img src="./php.png" alt="PHP Logo" border="0"> 52
  53. 53. Miscellaneous Tags <hr />: Draws a horizontal rule (line): <hr size="5" width="70%" /> <center></center>: Deprecated! <center>Hello World!</center> <font>: Changes font style <font size="3" color="blue">Font3</font> <font size="+4" color="blue">Font+4</font>  With CSS, there is no reason to use this tag 53
  54. 54. Miscellaneous Tags – Examplemisc.html<html> <head> <title>Miscellaneous Tags Example</title> </head> <body> <hr size="5" width="70%" /> <center>Hello World!</center> <font size="3" color="blue">Font3</font> <font size="+4" color="blue">Font+4</font> </body></html> 54
  55. 55. Miscellaneous Tags Live Demo
  56. 56. Ordered Lists: <ol> Tag Create an Ordered List using <ol></ol>: <ol type="1"> <li>Apple</li> <li>Orange</li> <li>Grapefruit</li> </ol> Attribute values for type are 1, A, a, I, or i 1. Apple i. Apple 2. Orange ii. Orange 3. Grapefruit iii. Grapefruit a. Apple A. Apple b. Orange I. Apple B. Orange c. Grapefruit II. Orange C. Grapefruit III. Grapefruit 56
  57. 57. Unordered Lists: <ul> Tag Create an Unordered List using <ul></ul>: <ul type="disk"> <li>Apple</li> <li>Orange</li> <li>Grapefruit</li> </ul> Attribute values for type are:  disc, circle or square • Apple o Apple  Apple • Orange o Orange  Orange • Pear o Pear  Pear 57
  58. 58. Definition lists: <dl> tag Create definition lists using <dl>  Pairs of text and associated definition; text is in <dt> tag, definition in <dd> tag <dl> <dt>HTML</dt> <dd>A markup language …</dd> <dt>CSS</dt> <dd>Language used to …</dd> </dl>  Renders without bullets  Definition is indented 58
  59. 59. Lists – Example<html> lists.html <body> <ol type="1"> <li>Apple</li> <li>Orange</li> <li>Grapefruit</li> </ol> <ul type="disc"> <li>Apple</li> <li>Orange</li> <li>Grapefruit</li> </ul> <dl> <dt>HTML</dt> <dd>A markup lang…</dd> </dl> </body></html> 59
  60. 60. Creating Lists Live Demo
  61. 61. HTML Special Characters Symbol Name HTML Entity Symbol Copyright Sign &copy; ©Registered Trademark Sign &reg; ® Trademark Sign &trade; ™ Less Than &lt; < Greater Than &gt; > Ampersand &amp; & Non-breaking Space &nbsp; Em Dash &mdash; — Quotation Mark &quot; " Euro € € British Pound &pound; £ Japanese Yen &yen; ¥ 61
  62. 62. Special Characters – Example<html> special-chars.html<head> <title>Special HTML Characters Example</title></head><body> <p>[&gt;&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;Welcome &nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;&lt;]</p> <p>►I have following cards: A♣, K♦ and 9♥.</p> <p>►I prefer hard rock ♫ music ♫</p> <p>© 2006 by Svetlin Nakov &amp; his team</p> <p>Telerik Academy™</p></body></html> 62
  63. 63. Special Chars – Example (2)<html> special-chars.html<head> <title>Special HTML Characters Example</title></head><body> <p>[&gt;&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;Welcome &nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;&lt;]</p> <p>►I have following cards: A♣, K♦ and 9♥.</p> <p>►I prefer hard rock ♫ music ♫</p> <p>© 2006 by Svetlin Nakov &amp; his team</p> <p>Telerik Academy™</p></body></html> 63
  64. 64. HTML Special Characters Live Demo
  65. 65. Using <DIV> and <SPAN>Block and Inline Elements
  66. 66. Block and Inline Elements Block elements act as if there is a break before and after them  <div> is a block element  Other block elements are <table>, <hr>, headings, lists, <center>, <p> and etc. Inline elements don’t break the text before and after them  <span> is inline element  Most HTML elements are inline, e.g. <a> 66
  67. 67. The <div> Tag <div> creates logical divisions within a page Block style element Used with CSS Example: div-and-span.html <div align="center" style="font-size:24; color:red">DIV example</div> <p>This one is <span style="color:red; font- weight:bold">only a test</span>.</p> 67
  68. 68. <DIV>Live Demo
  69. 69. The <span> Tag Inline style element Useful for modifying a specific portion of text  Dont create a separate area (paragraph) in the document Very useful with CSSspan.html <p>This one is <span style="color:red; font- weight:bold">only a test</span>.</p> <p>This one is another <span style="font-size:32; font-weight:bold">TEST</span>.</p> 69
  70. 70. <SPAN>Live Demo
  71. 71. HTML BasicsQuestions? http://academy.telerik.com
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