SEMINAR 2013-2014
Bio-fertilizer and
Phosphorus use
Efficiency
UNDER SUPERVISION OF -- DR. S.B. SINGH , SIR
DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY ,
R.B.S. COLLEGE , BICHPURI , AGRA
PRESENTED BY -- ADI...
SYNOPSIS ---
1 - INTRODUCTION
(A) – HISTORY
(B) – IMPORTANCE
2 - WHAT IS BIO-FERTILIZER .
3 - TYPE OF BIO-FERTILIZERS.
(A)...
7 - THE ADVANTAGES OF BIO-
FERTILIZER .
8 - BIO-FERTILIZER STATISTICS AND
PRODUCTION ESTIMAT
9 - LIST OF BIO-FERTILIZER UN...
INTRODUCTION –
- Over the past century , in developed countries , inorganic chemical fertilizer have
been widely accepted ...
- Plant need sufficient nutrient in proper balance for
normal growth and development .
- Bio-fertilizer can been expected ...
(A) - History :-
- The field of biological nitrogen fixation
opened up with the discoveries by
Boussingault and Hellreigel...
What is bio-fertilizer :-
- “Microbial Inoculants” is the more appropriate
name of Bio-fertilizer .
- Bio-fertilizer is a ...
1 . Symbiotic Bacteria :-
- Bacteria belonging to the genus
Rhizobium are capable of fixing
atmospheric nitrogen in associ...
2 . Non-symbiotic
Bacteria :-
- Non-symbiotic Bacteria or
Free living bacteria who is
able to fix the nitrogen as-
Blue gr...
(B). Mode Of Action of P.S.M.
(Phosphorus Solubilizing Micro-
organism) :-
- P.S.M. include various bacterial , fungal and...
Bio –fertilizer
Symbiotic Bacteria Non-symbiotic bacteria Phosphorus solubilizer
N-fixer N-fixer
Rhaizobium Azotobacter P....
DESCPTION :-
1. NITROGEN FIXING BIO-
FERTILIZER :-
(A) – RHIZOBIUM INOCULANT
(SYMBIOTIC NITROGEN FIXER) :-
- RHIZOBIA HAVE...
Rhizobium species suitable for different crops :-
rhizobium species crop
R. Lugumiosorum Peas , Lathyus
Masoor , Lobia , B...
(B). AZOTOBACTER
INOCULANT
(NON-SYMBIOTIC) :-
- AZOTOBACTER CULTURE IS ESPECIALLY
BENEFICIAL FOR OILSEED CROPS.
- THEY FIX...
(C) . AZROSPIRILLUM
INOCULANT
(NON-SYMBIOTIC) :-
- AZOSPIRILLUM ROOT ASSOCIATION HAVE
REPORTED TO IMPROVE CROP YIELD IN
WH...
(D) Blue Green Algae
(B.G.A.) :-
- In India rice fields also Algae are
typically the inhabitants of aquatic
environment so...
(E). Azolaa :-
- It is floating fresh water fern .
- It‟s N-fixing ability is because of
Anabaena as Edosymbiont which is
...
2. Phosphate Solubilizing Bio-
fertilizer :-
(A). Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial
(P.S.B.):-
- Phosphorus is very importa...
(B) . MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI :-
- IT IS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MICRO-ORGANISMS AND
ROOT OF HIGHER PLANTS .
- MYCORRHIZAL PLANS ...
Role of bio-fertilizer in crop production :-
- In developing countries , the most important challenge is to produce suffic...
Introduction of Phosphorus :-
- Phosphorus is one of the most essential elements to humanity.
- Without phosphorus plant l...
(A). Mechanism :-
- Phosphorus nutrition benefits the plants by
producing deeper and abundant roots .
- The supply of Phos...
(B). Mode Of Action of P.S.M.
(Phosphorus Solubilizing Micro-
organism) :-
- P.S.M. include various bacterial , fungal and...
The Advantages of Bio-fertilizer :-
- Increase crop yield by 20 – 30%.
- Replace chemical nitrogen and phosphorus by 25%.
...
BIO-FERTILIZER
STATISTICS AND
PRODUCTION ESTIMATES:-
State wise production of Bio-fertilizer 2008-09 to 2011-2012
Zone/Sta...
2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
South
Andhra Pradesh 168.136 1345.28 999.60 1126.35
Karnataka 1921.057 369528 6930 5760.32...
List of BIO-fertilizer Units
in India and Abroad
- National Bio-fertilizer Development Centre ,
now it is „National Centre...
Conclusion :-
- The management of soil fertility
biological fertilizers is a vital
component of sustainable agriculture .
...
References :-
 Tripathi , A.K. ; Reddy , T.Y. and Reddy ,
G.H.S. (2010) . Bio-fertilizer .
Principal of agronomy (p.p. 25...
THANK YOU VERY
MUCH
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Bio fertilizer and phosphorus use efficiency , by- aditya kumar singh tomar

  1. 1. SEMINAR 2013-2014 Bio-fertilizer and Phosphorus use Efficiency
  2. 2. UNDER SUPERVISION OF -- DR. S.B. SINGH , SIR DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY , R.B.S. COLLEGE , BICHPURI , AGRA PRESENTED BY -- ADITYA KUMAR SINGH TOMAR M.SC. AGRICULTURE (PREVIOUS) , DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY , R.B.S. COLLEGE , BICHPURI , AGRA
  3. 3. SYNOPSIS --- 1 - INTRODUCTION (A) – HISTORY (B) – IMPORTANCE 2 - WHAT IS BIO-FERTILIZER . 3 - TYPE OF BIO-FERTILIZERS. (A) - CLASSIFICATION OF BIOFERTILIZER (B) - DESCRIPTION 4 - ROLE OF BIO-FERTILIZER IN CROP PRODUCTION 5 - INTRODUCTION OF PHOSPHORUS 6 - BIOLOGICAL MOBILIZATION OF PHOSPHORUS (A) – MECHANISM (B) - MODE OF ACTION OF P.S.M.
  4. 4. 7 - THE ADVANTAGES OF BIO- FERTILIZER . 8 - BIO-FERTILIZER STATISTICS AND PRODUCTION ESTIMAT 9 - LIST OF BIO-FERTILIZER UNITS IN INDIA AND ABROAD 10 - CONCLUSION 11 - REFERENCES
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION – - Over the past century , in developed countries , inorganic chemical fertilizer have been widely accepted as a major source of improving and maintaining soil -fertility . - Chemical fertilizer were used in agriculture , farmers were happy of getting increased yield in agriculture in beginning , but slowly chemical fertilizer started displayin their ill effects such as :- 1. leaching out . 2. polluting water basins. 3. destroying micro-organisms and friendly insects. 4. making the crop more susceptible to the attack of diseases. 5. reducing the soil fertility .
  6. 6. - Plant need sufficient nutrient in proper balance for normal growth and development . - Bio-fertilizer can been expected to reduce the use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides . - Bio-fertilizer add nutrient through the natural process of nitrogen fixation , solubilizing phosphorus and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth promoting substances.
  7. 7. (A) - History :- - The field of biological nitrogen fixation opened up with the discoveries by Boussingault and Hellreigel in 1886. 1920 - First study on legume – Rhizobium symbiosis N.V. Joshi . 1956 - First commercial production of bio-fertilizer in India . 1983 - setting up of national project on development and use of bio-fertilizer by ministery of agriculture , Government of India . (B) – Importance :- - Bio-fertilizer (1886) can help increasing the yield without causing the damage associated with chemical fertilizer.
  8. 8. What is bio-fertilizer :- - “Microbial Inoculants” is the more appropriate name of Bio-fertilizer . - Bio-fertilizer is a large population of a specific or a group of beneficial micro-organisms for enhancing the productivity of soil . Type of bio-fertilizer :- - In India , Rhizobium bio-fertilizer specific for different legumes and Blue , Green Algae are the most popular among farmers . - Azospirillum and solubilizing micro –organisms (PSM) , VAM , Azolla , Cellulose - decomposing organisms etc. are at preliminary stage .
  9. 9. 1 . Symbiotic Bacteria :- - Bacteria belonging to the genus Rhizobium are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in association with leguminous crop. - Different species of Rhizobium are used for treating the legume crop . - Rhizobium species enter the root of host plant . - The bacteria depend on the host plant and for carbohydrates and water . - Bacteria supplies nitrogen to host plant in the form of Asparagine Glutamine.
  10. 10. 2 . Non-symbiotic Bacteria :- - Non-symbiotic Bacteria or Free living bacteria who is able to fix the nitrogen as- Blue green alge , azolla , Azottobacter , Rhizospirillum.
  11. 11. (B). Mode Of Action of P.S.M. (Phosphorus Solubilizing Micro- organism) :- - P.S.M. include various bacterial , fungal and actinomycetes form which help to convert insoluble / hosphate in to simple and soluble form . - Species of pseudomonas , Micrococcus , Bacillus , Flavobacterium , Penicillum , and Aspergillus are some of the P.S.M. .
  12. 12. Bio –fertilizer Symbiotic Bacteria Non-symbiotic bacteria Phosphorus solubilizer N-fixer N-fixer Rhaizobium Azotobacter P.S.M. Azospirillum V.A.M. Blue green algae Azolla Beijerickia
  13. 13. DESCPTION :- 1. NITROGEN FIXING BIO- FERTILIZER :- (A) – RHIZOBIUM INOCULANT (SYMBIOTIC NITROGEN FIXER) :- - RHIZOBIA HAVE THE ABILITY TO FIX ATMOSPHERIC NITROGEN IN SIMBIOTIC ASSOCIATION WITH LEGUMES AND CERTAIN NON-LEGUMES . - 20 GRAM OF RHIZOBIUM CULTURE IS REQUIRED TO TREAT 1 KG SEED . - ONE PACKET OF RHIZOBIUM CONTAINS 200 GRAM OF R. CULTURE - FER SMALL SEEDED PULSES LIKE MOONG , ARHAR , LENTIL , BARSEEM 500 GRAM R. CULTURE IS SUFFICIENT FOR SEED REQUIRMENT TOBE SOWN IN 1 HA.
  14. 14. Rhizobium species suitable for different crops :- rhizobium species crop R. Lugumiosorum Peas , Lathyus Masoor , Lobia , Beens R. tripoli Barseem R. phaseoli Seam . R. Japonicum Soya been (Glycine max) R. Meliloti Pgeonpea (corjanus cojan ) , Ground nut ,
  15. 15. (B). AZOTOBACTER INOCULANT (NON-SYMBIOTIC) :- - AZOTOBACTER CULTURE IS ESPECIALLY BENEFICIAL FOR OILSEED CROPS. - THEY FIX ATMOSPHERIC NITROGEN INDEPENDENTLY NEAR THE ROOT ZONE . - THEY FIX 0.026 TO 20 KG N/HA. - THEY ALSO PRODUCE GROWTH PROMOTING SUBSTACES LIKE INDOLE ACETIC ACID , GIBBERELLIC ACID , ALONG WITH CHEMICAL WHICH ARE INHIBITORY TO CERTAIN ROOT PATHOGENS.
  16. 16. (C) . AZROSPIRILLUM INOCULANT (NON-SYMBIOTIC) :- - AZOSPIRILLUM ROOT ASSOCIATION HAVE REPORTED TO IMPROVE CROP YIELD IN WHEAT , PEARLMILLET SORGHUM AND SEVERAL GRASSES . - AZOSPIRILLUM LIPOFORUM AND AZOSPIRILLUM AMAZONAE WERE IDENTIFIED FOR IMPROVING CROP YIELD . - AZOSPIRILLUM CAN FIX ATMOSPHERIC NITROGEN ABOUT 10 TO 20 KG/H .
  17. 17. (D) Blue Green Algae (B.G.A.) :- - In India rice fields also Algae are typically the inhabitants of aquatic environment soil surface and also found in association with fungi as lichens and plants as fern and cycads. - B.G.A. fix approximately 25 Kg N/ha/year. - B.G.A. is suitable nitrogen fixer for paddy field . - Main sps. Ana.baena and Nostoc
  18. 18. (E). Azolaa :- - It is floating fresh water fern . - It‟s N-fixing ability is because of Anabaena as Edosymbiont which is generally used as biological source of nitrogen in the cultivation of rice – Azolla pinnata is the most tolerant to high temperature (30- 35) and most suited to low land rice fields . - 5.5 to7 pH soil is good for this. - 2500 to 3000 Kg Azolla is sufficient for one ha. Field . - Azolla fixes 30-40 Kg nitrogen / ha. / year.
  19. 19. 2. Phosphate Solubilizing Bio- fertilizer :- (A). Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial (P.S.B.):- - Phosphorus is very important nutrient of plants required in large quantity . Inorganic forms of this nutrient are compound of Ca , Fe , Al large amount of phosphorus applied to various soil get fixed which is unavailable to the plants . Several soil bacterial , particularly those belonging ‘pseudomonas’ and ‘baeillus’and „fungi‟ belonging to penicillium and aspergillus posses the ability to convert insoluble phosphates in soil into soluble forms by secreting organic acids such as acetic , formic , propionic lactic , glycolic , famaric and succinic acids . - These acids lower the pH and bring about dissolution of bound form of phosphate.
  20. 20. (B) . MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI :- - IT IS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MICRO-ORGANISMS AND ROOT OF HIGHER PLANTS . - MYCORRHIZAL PLANS INCREASE WATER UPTAKE AND , OR CHANGE THE PLANTS PHYSIOLOGY TO ADOPT STRESS CONDITION AS SOIL DROUGHT , VAM INCREASE EFFICIENTLY MINERAL UPTAKE RESULTING IN ENHANCED GROWTH - MYCORRHIZAL PLANTS REDUCE PLANT RESPONSE TO OTHER SOIL STRESSES LIKE CELL TOXICITY , HEAVY METAL TOXICITY , IMBALANCE IN SOIL ELEMENTS AND HIGH SALT CONCENTRATION . (V.A.M.) VESICULAR – ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE :- - V.A.M. FUNGI INCULAYED TO CROP PLANTS COLONIZE THE PLANT ROOT SYSTEM AND INCREASE THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF CROP PLANTS . - THE IMPROVED PLANT GROWTH IS DUE TO INCREASED NUTRIENT UPTAKE PARTICULARLY P , ZINC AND OTHER MICRONUTRIENTS PRODUCTION OF GROWTH PROMOTING SUBSTANCE TO DROUGHT AND SALINITYAND RESISTANCE TO PLANT PATHOGENS
  21. 21. Role of bio-fertilizer in crop production :- - In developing countries , the most important challenge is to produce sufficient food for the growing population from inelastic land area . - Bio-fertilizer can provide to the small and marginal farmers an economically viable lever for realizing the ultimate goal of increasing productivity. - The described Bio-fertilizer , treatment of Rizobium inoculant fix 20-25 kg N/ha and increase yield by 10-25% especially in pulses . -Treatment of non-leguminous crops with Azotobacter and Azospirillum may increas yield by 5-15% and fix N of 20-25 kg N/ha. - BGA and Azolla may fix 20-25 kg N /ha to rice crop. - They don‟t have any ill effect on soil health and environment .
  22. 22. Introduction of Phosphorus :- - Phosphorus is one of the most essential elements to humanity. - Without phosphorus plant life would not exist . - There is no substitute for phosphorus in crop growth . - Mineral fertilizer like nitrogen and phosphorus led to a substantial increase in agriculture yield . Biological Mobilization of Phosphorus :- - Phosphorus , the master key element is know to be involved in a plethora of functions in the plant growth and metabolism . (A) - Mechanism (B) – P.S.M.
  23. 23. (A). Mechanism :- - Phosphorus nutrition benefits the plants by producing deeper and abundant roots . - The supply of Phosphorus element to plant is essential for achieving optimum crop yield . - Phosphorus is supplied through phosphatic fertilizer , animal manures etc. - Plant take up their phospho-organic as the primary orthophosphate ion H2Po4 , the secondary orthophosphate ions HPO4 is also believed to be absorbed by plant roots in small quantities .
  24. 24. (B). Mode Of Action of P.S.M. (Phosphorus Solubilizing Micro- organism) :- - P.S.M. include various bacterial , fungal and actinomycetes form which help to convert insoluble / Phosphate in to simple and soluble form . - Species of pseudomonas , Micrococcus , Bacillus , Flavobacterium , Penicillum , and Aspergillus are some of the P.S.M. .
  25. 25. The Advantages of Bio-fertilizer :- - Increase crop yield by 20 – 30%. - Replace chemical nitrogen and phosphorus by 25%. - Stimulated plant growth . - Restore natural soil fertility . - Cost effective . - Eco-friendly . - Reduces the cost towards fertilizers use especially regarding nitrogen and phosphorus. - Better germination.
  26. 26. BIO-FERTILIZER STATISTICS AND PRODUCTION ESTIMATES:- State wise production of Bio-fertilizer 2008-09 to 2011-2012 Zone/State Actual production of Bio-fertilizer in metric – ton 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 East Assam 129.355 121.04 130.00 68.33 Orissa 405.03 289.867 357.66 590.12 West Bengal 241.24 256.5 393.39 603.20 Bihar - - 136.26 75.00 North Haryana 14.25 6.195 6.53 914.41 Himachal Pradesh - 8.5 9.00 1.29 Uttar Pradesh 885.5174 962.6417 1217.45 8695.08 Punjab 1.14 301.232 2.50 692.22
  27. 27. 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 South Andhra Pradesh 168.136 1345.28 999.60 1126.35 Karnataka 1921.057 369528 6930 5760.32 Tamil Nadu 4687.818 3732.586 8691 3373.81 West Gujrat 1149.69 1309.19 6318 2037.35 Madhya Pradesh 848.448 1587.677 2455.57 2309 Mharashtara 1249.67 1861.33 2924 8743.69 Source – Compiled by National Centre of Organic Farming (Data as provided by production units / State Government
  28. 28. List of BIO-fertilizer Units in India and Abroad - National Bio-fertilizer Development Centre , now it is „National Centre of Organic Farming‟ Gajiabaad , Uttar Pradesh , India - Bio-fertilizer Production Unit Government of Tamil Nadu Kukumiamalal , Pudukkottai , Tamil Nadu . - Agriculture Bactroriology Section College of Agriculture , Pune , India . - Bio-Care-Techonology . Pty. Ltd. , New South Wales , Australia . - Agrproyectos Rivadavia y Obipo , Gelabert 3000 , Argentina
  29. 29. Conclusion :- - The management of soil fertility biological fertilizers is a vital component of sustainable agriculture . - Bio-fertilizer not only substitute of inorganic fertilizers but also helping the health of soil . -Thus , it envisage an integrated of traditional techniques with appropriate modern advances . The need for integrated nutrient supply system and it‟s assumed importance towards sustainable agriculture need to be investigated . The great potential of Bio-fertilizer can be exploited for this purpose.
  30. 30. References :-  Tripathi , A.K. ; Reddy , T.Y. and Reddy , G.H.S. (2010) . Bio-fertilizer . Principal of agronomy (p.p. 250 – 254).  Katyayan , Arun (2012) . Manures , Fertilizer and Bio-fertilizer. Fundamental of Agriculture (p.p. 248 – 254) .  Sharma , Arun K. (2004) . Biological fertilizer (p.p. 67-83) , Biological Mobilization of Phosphorus (p.p. 194 – 232). Bio-fertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture .  Various material collected through internet , :- Bio-fertilizer news letters – National Center of Organic Farming (ncof.dacnet.nic.in) :- Indian fertilizer scenario 2012 - Department of fertilizer ; ( www.fert .nic.in ) :- Annual Report for 2012 – 2013Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizer ; (www.rcfltd.com) :- State-wise Capacity and Production of Bio- fertilizer in India ; (www.indiastat.com)  Notes and guidance provided by Dr. S.B. Singh sir and Dr. D. S. Chonker sir.
  31. 31. THANK YOU VERY MUCH

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