WHY IS IT REQUIRED ????GD helps to develop skills like….. Team Work Communication Skills Reasoning Abilities Leadership Skills Clarity of thought Assertiveness Conflict Handling Listening Awareness Most Imp… Gets U the Job….
TYPES OF GD Topic based : Right to education, Corruption aneed, Upsurge of Indian Athletics, Reservations Case based : Survivor Role playing, Simulation ofcorporate problems Abstract : Sky is Blue, Parallel lines, Who letthe dogs out, 1+1=2
IDEA GENERATION Key Word Approach : Use words in the topic opento interpretation to form viewpoints. P.E.S.T Approach : Political, Economical, Socialand Technological angle of any topic, presentingviewpoints from both sides i.e positive andnegative.
STRUCTURE OF A GD Introduction or starting a GD Main body (where we all discuss/argue) Summary
EVALUATION OF A GD Content : “What you Speak”, Relevant pointsshould be raised instead of beating about the bushand mindless negations. Communication Skills : Interactive skills(languageand fluency), Behavior(body language),participation and ability to accept other’sviewpoints. Leadership Skills : Ability to lead, inspire andcarry the team along to help them achieve thegroup’s objectives.
TIPS AND TRICKS Speak pleasantly and politely Address your colleagues not the moderator Try and maintain an eye to eye contact Stick to the discussion topic(don’t introduceirrelevant information) Respect the contribution of every speaker Learn to disagree politely Agree ,acknowledge and note down what you findinteresting Be aware of your body language
Don’t shout/loose your temper Be terse and use a moderate tone and medium pitch Don’t use too many gestures or hold objects in your hand Don’t draw too much on personal experience, avoidspeaking ill of someone just to prove your point Wait for a speaker to finish then say your point Don’t exceed your airtime unless you have very good points,you might be eating into someone elses time
IT’S A GD NOT A DEBATE Not necessary to stick on to just one viewpoint.Expand the horizon to include both sides of thetopic. Focus on coming to a conclusion rather than justnegating your colleagues points.
BEST WAYS TO PREPARE FOR A GD…. Read Start developing Opinions about events takingplace looking at them with a deeper insight. Mock GD with a select group of friends who areserious about this. Accept criticism and feedback in a positivemanner and try to learn from every GDexperience you have.
EXAMPLES WHICH HAVE BEEN ASKED BYCOMPANIES Media Censorship: boon or bane Necessity is the mother of Invention Corruption Commonwealth Games : a citizens perspective Education Policies : Churning out citizens or moneyhungry robots Ragging a students viewpoint Engineers make better managers Politics, Police, People: Who is the culprit You need two hands to clap IT and its Impact Social Networking redefining Human Bonding
TYPES OF CASE STUDIESStrategic : Falling Profits, CompetitiveanalysisMarketing: New Product IntroductionMergers and AcquisitionsExpansion : Entering a New Market
WHAT DOES THE EMPLOYER WANT???Mental HorsepowerLeadership SkillsAnalytical SkillsAttention to DetailingQuantitative SkillsFlexibilityMaturity
CASE FRAMEWORKS Porter’s Five Forces SWOT analysis Product Life Cycle 4Ps and 4Cs Model Value Chain Analysis Boston Consulting Group(BCG) matrix Supply Demand Curves Fixed Costs/Variable Costs, Breakeven Analysis Strategic Strategies (Miles and Snow) Game Theory Economies of Scale and Just In Time InventoryHandling
4P MODELo PriceWhat price must you charge to make a profit?What price are consumers willing to pay?What price are your competitors charging?o ProductWhat product do you want to sell?What advantages does your product offer?o PlaceWhere is there a demand for your product?Where are your suppliers located?What distribution channels are being used?o PromotionWho is your target audience?How do you reach them?How much do you want to spend on promotions and advertising?
SAMPLE CASEInterviewer: I was at a strategy meeting with a consumer brandcompany. They told me that in the past two quarters, sales of theirtoffees rose significantly. What could be the reason?Market Place Promotion Price ProductInterviewee: First, I’m going to try to find out about the marketposition of the waffles. Then, I’m going to try to figure out how thewaffles are being promoted. After that, I’ll ask whether there are anyprice-based reasons for the surge in waffle sales. Finally, I’ll ask youabout the waffles themselves.Sales Market Penetration/expansionInterviewee: What is the overall market for waffles? Has it grownrecently?Interviewer: No, Demand for waffles seems to be holding steady.
Interviewee: Is there a seasonal reason for this increase in waffleconsumption? Perhaps people eat more waffles when it’s cold?Interviewer: No, our waffles sales are normally steady year-round.Interviewee: Have sales of other breakfast foods or our ownbreakfast products increased as well?Interviewer: No, they haven’t, There seems to be no uptick in thebreakfast food market.”Interviewee: Has our client entered any new markets recently?Perhaps they’ve entered the Asian market? I’m assuming that thesewaffles are only sold in North American markets.
Interviewer: The company does plan to expand into the Europeanand Americal market. For the time being, no, they haven’t expandedthe sales area .(Place not a criteria for us now)Sales Own Price Competitor price Production costInterviewee: Okay, let’s talk about promotion and price ,Has ourclient lowered prices recently?Interviewer: NoInterviewee: Have other waffle manufacturers raised their prices?Interviewer: Is our product a premium product – have we raisedprices?Interviewee: No, There is little price differential between our wafflesand competing waffle products. And prices have not varied in thepast two quarters. In fact, our waffles are slightly more expensivethan some waffles and a bit less than others.
Sales Promotion (people becoming more aware)Interviewee: Then maybe there’s some kind of promotion going on.Has the company started advertising its waffles? Is it promoting arelated product, like syrup?Interviewer: noInterviewee: Maybe the price of all syrup has gone down?Interviewer: That would affect the consumption of all waffles!Interviewee: Is there a celebrity who’s recently become famous foreating our waffles?Interviewer: That’s not it.Interviewee: Then tell me about our client’s promotion process,
Interviewer: Our client spends about $10 million yearly on wafflepromotion. Every month, we run advertisements in three selectedmagazines. We also have coupon promotions and a commercial thatruns on TV.”Interviewee: Have we started to put our commercials on morepopular programs? Has the quality of our advertising improved?Interviewer: We haven’t significantly changed our promotioncampaign. The ratings of the shows we advertise on are about thesame.(Its clear now that promotion is same and I should move on)Sales Product quality/taste Ingredients/shape changedInterviewee: Then perhaps something has changed about ourproduct. Has the shape changed?Interviewer: It has changed a bit. It’s flattened out somewhatInterviewee: Why? Has the production process changed?Interviewer: We’re using a new template for the waffles as part of ageneral factory modernization.
Interviewee: Are the ingredients the same?Interviewer: Those have changed too. We’re using a new supplier.(Since the cost hasn’t changed perhaps the supplier charges thesame, so no point considering that)Interviewee: I would venture to guess that consumers in NorthAmerica prefer a flatter, larger waffle. There must be somethingabout the new production process that has created a better waffle.Interviewer: Yes, Our focus groups show that the texture andcrispiness of the waffle has improved. Consumers are responding toour inadvertently improved waffle.Interviewee: Then I recommend that we investigate whetherEuropean and Asian markets would respond in a similar manner toour new waffle product. We should also promote our waffleadvantage in the market. Perhaps we could enter new markets forwaffles, like using them for dinner, as crepes.
4C MODEL CustomerHow is the market segmented?What are the purchase criteria that customers use? CompetitorWhat is the market share of the clients?What is its market position?Do competitors have any market advantages? CapacityWhat resources can the client draw from?How is the client organized? CostWhat kind of economies of scale does the client have?Will increased production lower cost?
LAUNCH OF DAIRY MILK 4C MODELCustomer AnalysisDone on basis of Demographic values and lifestyleProduct ClassificationBreak segment : PerkImpulse Segment : Dairy milk, 5Star (malls)Take home segment: Gift packs, BournvitaCustomer Segmentation on basis of Product Classification1) 5-15 : Chocolates, gems, Bournvita2)15-45 : Chocolates and health drinks3)45 and above : Sugar free products and health drinks
Competitor AnalysisOn this basis and analyzing the tastes it was decided to launch Dairy Milk in3 segments1) Normal2) Superior3) PremiumThese catered to all age groups and income groups and had very lessmarket resistance and low entry barriersThe taste was decided keeping in mind the Indian tastes as done by bar-one, having greatest share(dark chocolates are preferred by few)0102030405060Market ShareMarket Share
CapacitiesEstablished since 54 yrs in IndiaExcellent penetration in even all villages and small townsEarlier products very popular with existing customer base therefore brandloyalty and repeated buying successful without special offersDifferentiated product lineup which caters to many customer segmentsTherefore it has the capacity to produce and launch products which have agreater chance of being successfulFinancially the company is very sound and can counter any predatory pricingmeasures and can setup large plants to effectively exploit the concept ofEconomies of Scale
CostIt takes almost 50 lacs to produce 1 chocolate from scratch(including all expenses of setting up plant, labor, accessorycharges)For the second chocolate per chocolate cost drops to 25 lacs andthe cost decreases exponentially.Using these facts and employing formulas to consider otherfactors the cost come out to be very competitive:Rs 20 for normal segmentRs 30 for superior segmentRs 50 for premium segmentThis would enable it to recover the initial costs and effectivelycounter price wars
4P 4CCommunication requires a giveand take between the buyer andseller (thats nicer). Use phonenumbers, your web siteaddress, etc.Think of convenience to buyinstead of place, know how eachsubset of the market prefers to buy- on the Internet, from acatalogue, on the phoneIf you sell hamburgers, considerthe cost of driving to yourrestaurant, the cost of conscienceof eating meat.Study consumer wants andneeds and then attractconsumers one by one withsomething each one wantsConsider the communicationinstead of promotion. Promotion ismanipulative - it’s from the sellerMerely placeIf you rely strictly on price tocompete you are vulnerable tocompetition - in the long term.You cant develop products andthen try to sell them to a massmarket
PORTERS ANALYSIS OFSUNFEASTEntry barriers tough astoo many companieswith excellent portfoliosand can make survivaltough using predatorypricingBargain power ofcustomers high becausecustomer loyaltytowards other productsplus distributors earningmore on other brandsMaggi- max marketshare, deepest penetrationTop Ramen-good marketshare and penetrationKnor-New entrant butexcellent promotionalstrategiesEntry barriers tough astoo many companieswith excellent portfoliosand can make survivaltough using predatorypricingNone available as it is atop of the line consumerproductSUPPLIERINDUSTRYCOMPETITOR
SAMPLE CASE SWOTSTRENGTHS WEAKNESSMarket Penetration Less Penetration/ExpansionCustomer Segmentation Limited Key ProductsGood Promotion Less promotion/campaigningProduct Quality Poor quality of productGood Distribution Network Poor retailer/distributor networkEconomies of scale Less production compared to othersConstant innovations No change /innovationGood After Sales service Bad serviceOPPORTUNITY THREATGrowth rate high Competitive brandsGrowing economy Changing Government policiesChanging trends GlobalizationGlobalization If product fails there are exit barriers
STRENGTHSVery strong brand equity inIndia54 years in market hencedeep penetrationLow cost of production byeconomies of scaleProducts for all customersegmentsExcellent promotionstrategies.• Temptation chocolates:tagline- Too to share• ICICI’s ATM/ Radio• They target every age groupby their advertisements WEAKNESSESPoor technology in Indiacompared to currentinternational technologiesLtd. Key products“Make in India” tag once theeconomy opens up wore andimports rush inMore marketing anddistributing cost.Swot Analysis Of Cadbury-A company analysis
OpportunitiesTremendous scope for percapita consumptionIncreasing per capita nationalincome resulting in higherdisposable incomeGrowing middle class andgrowing urban populationIncreasing gifts culturesSubstitute to “Mithais” withhigher calories/cholesterolIncreasing departmentalstores concept – impulse @at cash countersGlobalizationThreatNo major threats: Due to lowcost and highest brandequity, it is today in IndiaMinor threats: Globalizationwill bring in better productsand/or brands.
WHAT IS A GUESSTIMATE ?Whether free-standing or as part of a case, learninghow to make “back-of-the- envelope” calculations(rough, yet basically accurate) is an essential partof the case interview. As part of a guesstimate, youmight be asked to estimate : how many watermelons are sold in the UnitedStates each year, or what the market size for a new computer programthat organizes your wardrobe might be.
You might need to figure out the market size for thewardrobe software as a first step in determininghow to enter the European market. The number of people getting a haircut of morethan 500 from 4-6 on a particular day in southDelhi???(Try solving this or we will solve it for youtomorrow)You will not be expected to get the exactnumber, but you should come close –henceguesstimate. What matters is the approach and thatall the factors have been considered to get to theanswer. .
CLASSIFIED INFORMATION WORLDPopulation World: 6 BillionAdults: 3/4Below Poverty Line: 1/3 USPopulation US: 300 millionNo of households in US: 105 millionNumber of adults in US: 210 Million (18+ yrs) (70%)200 million (21+ yrs)Number of Cars per household: 2.5Minimum Wage: $5 per hourAverage Life Expectancy: 80 Yrs.In USA fraction of adults is high : 4/5
INDIAPopulation India: 1000 millionNo of households in India: 180 millionNumber of adults: 530 million (18+ yrs) 53%440 million (21+ yrs)Number of Cars per household: 0.02Minimum Wage: Rs. 15 per hourAverage Life Expectancy: 70 Yrs DELHIPopulation: 1.2 croreTotal Area: 1438 sq Km
SAMPLE GUESSTIMATEWhat is the annual demandand supply for managementconsulting jobs in the world?
SOLUTIONTo make life easier, let’s just consider new graduatesfresh from schools and assume the United States hashalf of world’s consulting jobs. Supply Side:For this year’s graduating class (class of 2011) at top 50universities in the USlet’s assume there are 1,500 students interested ingetting into management consulting industry:500 college students500 MBA students (both full-time and part-time)500 other advanced degree holders(PhD/JD/MD andnon-MBA master’s degree).
For top 51 – 100 universities, on average the number ofstudents who are considering management consultingmay be only one third of that of top 50s: 500.Add (1) and (2) together ==> 1,500×50 + 500×50 =100,000 in the US.Double that number will give us roughly 200,000students that will likely submit job applications tomanagement consulting firms worldwide.
Demand Side:Given that the current headcount of consultants at top 4consulting firms are as follows:McKinsey & Company 9,000 consultantsBCG 4,400 consultantsBain & Company 3,500 consultantsBooz & Company 3,000 consultantsBig 4 total 19,900If we assume the big-4 players combined has 10%market share, then the total number of managementconsultants in the world is 200,000.
Since the turnover rate in management consultingindustry is high, most consulting firms need to hire 20-30% of their existing headcount just to stand still.Assume half of the new hires are from freshgraduates, and half are experienced hires, the totalnumber of consulting job openings available toundergraduates and graduate students would be:200,000 x 15% = 30,000.Therefore, approximately 3 out of 20 students who applyfor management consulting jobs will actually get offers.
SAMPLE GUESSTIMATEHow many weddings areperformed each day in Japan
SOLUTION In a city of 1 million (Kyoto), how many peopleare of marriageable age?Let’s say 750,000 How many get married in a given year? Maybe 2percent?That’s 15,000 Now, the population of Japan is about 150million, so multiply 15,000 by 150 – and you get2.25 million weddings every year.
Divide that by 365 and you get 6,164 weddings perday (on the average, though clearly some days aremore popular than others)!! To summarize:There are 1 million people in Kyoto.750,000 are of marriageable age2 percent get married in the average year750,000 x 0.02 = 15,000 marriages every year inKyoto
There are 150 million people in Japan150 x 15,000 = 2.25 million weddings per year2,250,000/365 = 6,164 weddings per day
WHY IS A GOOD RESUME A NECESSITY First Impression is the Last Impression !!! One of the best ways to market Your self The only means of non verbal communicationbetween U and the Interviewee Get to express your core qualities in an easy, crispand effective manner. A medium to show the company what it wants tosee in you. Helps you crack the interview much better as itgives you a 50% leverage over the othercandidates
TYPES OF RESUMES AND SOME TIPS TECHNICAL resumes NON TECHNICAL resumes A single page resume is the best resume Keep it SHORT, SIMPLE, no GrammaticalERRORS Font size should be 10 to 11 and style professional Try to have separate resumes for tech and non-techcompanies Don’t use I, We, You etc use action verbs
TECHNICAL RESUMES BASIC STRUCTURE Aim (not necessary if projects more in number) Educational Qualifications (10th ,12th , Grad) Trainings Projects - Car Teams, Technical papers Educational Achievements - Badgeholder, scholarships, NTSE Certifications – NSE, NIIT etc Soft Skills - C++, JAVA, AutoCAD, Pro E Extra Curricular - focus on tech basedevents, non- tech only very good ones Positions of Responsibility, role in technicalsocieties
NON TECHNICAL RESUME (STRUCTURE) Aim (not necessary if projects more in number) Educational Qualifications (10th ,12th , Grad) Trainings Projects - Car Teams, Technical papers Achievements - Badgeholder, scholarships, NTSE, competitions of any levelbut of last 4 yrs and very major ones if even older Extra Curricular – both tech and non tech, clubs of anysorts(dramatics, dance), Sports, organizing committeeof events, B plans etc Positions of Responsibility, role in technicalsocieties Hobbies
WHAT IS AN INTERVIEW ?The interview is a two-way exchangeof information. It is an opportunity forboth parties to market themselves. Theemployer is selling the organization toyou, and you are marketing yourskills, knowledge, and personality tothe employer.
WHAT IS REQUIRED?CORE• Be well prepared with atleast two of your coresubjects.• Interview questions arebased on your technicaltrainings and projects .• If you still have time thenstudy more and increaseyour aggregate, 60%isjust not good enough!NON-TECH• Be prepared with at least1 example of all qualitiesyou have like problemsolving ,leadership skillsetc.• You should be able tosolve case studies andguesstimates and know allthe market theories like4C ,4P really well!• Lots of confidence and aRocket Singh likeattitude..
SOME SKILLS YOU COULDDEVELOP /PREPARE / BLUFF Analytical/Problem Solving Flexibility/Versatility Interpersonal Oral/Written Communication Organization/Planning Time Management Motivation Leadership Self-Starter/Initiative Team Player
SIX BASIC HR QUESTIONS Tell us about yourself. What do you know about our company? Why do you want to join our company? What are your strengths and weaknesses? Where do you see yourself in the next five years? Have You given CAT/GRE this year .If yes thenwhy? If not then why not?
INTERVIEW ROUNDSThe Personal Interview rounds generally are: HR round which is a general talk about what youhave done. You are generally judged on yourconfidence in this . Technical round is related to your coresubjects, training and projects. Psychometric round(very rare) here you are askedaround 70 HR questions and have to answer with ayes/no and loads of examples supporting yourqualities Telephonic round is generally the last round with asenior person in the company which is again HRmostly.
QUESTIONS YOU CAN ASK What are the most significant factors affecting your businesstoday? How have changes in technology most affected yourbusiness today? How has your business/industry been affected by therecession? How has your company grown or changed in the last coupleof years? What future direction do you see the company taking? Where is the greatest demand for your services or product? Where is most of the pressure from increased business felt inthis company? Which department feels it the most? How do you differ from your competitors? How much responsibility will I be given in this position? What do you like about working with this organization? Can you tell me more about the training program?
Have any new product lines been introduced recently? How much travel is normally expected? What criteria will be used to evaluate my performance? Will I work independently or as part of a team? How did you advance to your position? What are the career paths available in this organization? When can I expect to hear from you regarding thisposition? “What is the history of your company and how was yourcompany started?”But Be sure to note that whatever you ask hasn’tbeen already talked about during the presentationthat the company had given !!