Bp & Overview of Oil Spill in Mexican Gulf..An attempt by- Aditi Podder,Priyanka Mandal,Akash Majumdar, Anushmita Samanta,Narsingh Rungta
• British Petroleum is the third largest energy company & the fourth largest company in the world, and one of the six gas super major measured by 2011 measured revenue.• Operates over in over 80 countries and has 21,800 service stations worldwide.• Production is about 3.4 million barrels/day.• Works in the field of exploration , production, refining, distribution, marketing petrochemical, power generation and trading.• BP owns 19.7% stake in Russian oil major Rosneft (World’s largest publicly traded oil & gas company by hydrocarbon reserves and production.
• Fifth generation ultra-deepwater, dynamically positioned, semi- submersible mobile offshore oil drilling unit.• Built by Hyundai heavy industries in 2001.• BP took it on lease from 2001.• In 2009, the rig drilled the deepest oil well in history at a vertical depth of 35050 feet in Tiber oil field.• In 2010, it is commissioned in Mexican gulf.
Accident on Deep water horizonDate: 20th April 2010Explosion in BP operated Deep water horizon .Explosion caused fire on the deck.After 36 hours, it sank leaving the well unprotected.It caused largest accidental marine oil spill of history.Casualties: 11Injured: 26
• The accident at Deep water horizon is not an accident not only due to time-action gapping, but also some sequential events related to proactive maintenance.• At first it was `blow out preventer’ (which was designed to shut down the well) failed to shut down the well.• Secondly. There was a technical fault in design of the gas venting system which allows a cloud of explosive gas to envelop the rig.• At last the additional valves deep inside the well failed to prevent oil and gas from flowing up the steel pipe (casing).
Spill Characteristics • Location: Gulf of Mexico near Mississippi river delta, United States . • Area Covered: Area affected by this devastating oil spill is about 4000 square miles. • Volume: Near about 798000 Area covered by the oil spill gallons/day crude oil mixed in the ocean. • Per day loss: $430000 per day floatedNASA image taken – Spill estimated to cover an area in ocean ($86/Barrel) in excess of 4000 square miles
Ethical Issues After the accident on Deep water horizon, some ethical issues raised against BP. It was like in a way that If BP did not ignore some red signals, the accident might not happen.• Knowing that the Deepwater Horizon had problems, BP did not take any action towards proactive maintenance.• The rig continued to run under risk. Putting profit over the safety of workers.• The management of BP ignored the “Red Flags” from their procedural tests.
•The area of the oil spill includes 8,332 species.•More than 400 species that live in the Gulf islands and marshlands are still at risk.•As of November 2, 2010, 6,814 dead animals had been collected.•Miles-long strings of weathered oil had been sighted moving toward marshes onthe Mississippi River delta. Hundreds of thousands of migrating ducks and geesespend the winter in this delta.
Protect the coastline and marine environments Fundamental strategy •Contain oil on the surface away from the most sensitive areas, •Dilute and disperse it into less sensitive areas •Remove it from the water.An oil containment boom deployed by the U.S. Navy surrounds New Harbor Island, Louisiana. Containment The response included deploying many miles of containment boom, whose purpose is to either corral the oil, or to block it from ecologically sensitive areas.
Dispersal•Spilled oil naturally dispersesthrough storms, currents, andosmosis with the passage of time.•Chemical dispersants acceleratethe dispersal process, althoughthey may have significant side-effects.•Corexit is the principal dispersantemployed. A C-130 Hercules drops Corexit into the Gulf of MexicoThe Dark Side of Corexit•Corexit has been proved to be even more toxic to marine life than oil itself.•A component of Corexit, 2-Butoxy Ethanol, is also a known carcinogen; causing livercancer in animals.•It is banned from use on oil spills in the United Kingdom.•On May 19, the Environmental Protection Agency gave British Petroleum 24 hours tochoose less toxic alternatives to Corexit from a list of dispersants.
Removal of oil from gulf environmentBurning the oilApproximately 9,300,000 to 13,100,000 USgallons of oil was burned on the oceansurface.Filtering offshoreBy June 28, British Petroleum had Based on these estimates, up to 75% of the oil from Gulf oil disaster still remains in the Gulf environment.successfully filtered 890,000 barrels of oilyliquid.Collecting for later processingThe Coast Guard said 33,000,000 US gallonsof tainted water had been recovered, with5,000,000 US gallons of that consisting ofoil.
Use of non invasive oil eating microbes• Use of Pseudomonas putida could be very effective as it is non invasive and has no side affect. It eats oil, as it produces energy for it’s survival.• In the Labs (US) it shows almost desired results which is safe to use in mass.• It can be generated without complex genetically transformation.• It can grow in very fast rate, so it could cover more area in very short span of time.
How the microbes works• The oil eating microbes simply oxidize the hydro-carbon, thus carbon dioxide and water released.• Oil floats on water as it is lighter than water. Oxygen is available on the gulf surface . So it can break apart the hydrocarbons easily.• After eating up the surface oil layer, microbes will die due to deficiency of oil on the gulf surface.• In this process the microbes can make the gulf environment oil free with out leaving any side affect.
• $13.6 billion has been spent to clean up the beaches.• 95000 tones of crude oil collected from the shoreline.• Restoring tourism and seafood industries by paying all legitimate claims for damages resulting from the accident.• Estimated $.06 billon has been spent for tree plantation to restoring natural resources injured as a result of the accident.• Estimated $2 billion has been spent for restoring wild life habitat in the gulf region.
How BP is Reversing Damage Done to the Tourism Industry • BP has committed a total of $92 million over a 3-year period for Alabama, Florida, Mississippi and Louisiana. • In which each state is using tourism funds to sponsor a variety of special events, including music festivals, classic car rallies, and fishing competitions, that attracts thousands of visitors
BP’s Gen-Next Step towards fuel security: Cellulosic Bio fuels• BP is investing in overseas bio-to-diesel technology in Brazil• There are 3 sugarcane ethanol mills that have been opened• BP is pairing up with Companhia Nacional de Cucar e Alcoo (CNAA), the leading biofuel producer in Brazil• Goal: “Harvest sugar and create ethanol with the least negative effect possible on the environment, preserving staff and respecting the neighboring communities and all partners”
• Though the well was finally killed and many measures have been taken for restoring the environment and the business of the Mexican Gulf which were badly affected by the oil spill.• But this is not enough, because about 70% of leaked crude oil is in gulf environment till today. It may push us in danger in near future. So in order to protect marine spices we have to take necessary steps to eliminate the danger.• BP has taken new agenda under a banner of `Beyond Petroleum’ to produce bio fuels for cutting the dependency on crude oil. This things led US to work on new sensible energy policy.
1. www.naturalresources.gov.us2. www.bp.com3. `Oil spill-2010’ by sitty petersen; slide no- 2,5,64. `Mexican gulf disaster’ by Edward B. Overton; slide no-1,8,115. `BP’s Disaster-2010’ by Dimmy Anderson; slide no- 5,6,246. `BP’s Oil spill and US’ by Tessorthy McKinley; slide no- 6,7,87. `Deep water horizon’ by Nimmen Gothalic; slide no-14,16,188. `BP’s GenNext Fuel’ by Prescott Mathan’ slide no- 4,8,99. `Oil spill affect on US economy’ by Pialtics; page no-9;para-210. `BP’s compensation’ by Engg. Tim Sackalman; page no-5;para-511. `Oill spill in gulf of Mexico’ by Reuters; page no-16;para-312. www.youtube.com13. `BP’s Five blunders’ by nistenele Bromann; slide no- 7,10