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  • 1. Presented By Adithy Kottangal
  • 2. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  DESCRIPTION  SOME TYPES OF PILL CAMERAS  INSIDE A PILL CAMERA  PROCEDURE  HOW IT WORKS INSIDE THE BODY  USES  ADVANTAGES  DRAWBACKS AND OVERCOMES  CONCLUSION
  • 3. INTRODUCTION  Imagine a vitamin pill-sized camera that could travel through your body taking pictures, helping diagnose a problem which doctor previously would have found only through surgery. No longer is such technology the stuff of science fiction films.
  • 4. DESCRIPTION  The pill (developed at university of Washington) consists of 7optical fibers.  One for illumination and the rest six for collecting light.  Once swallowed, electric current flows through the pill that causes the encased fibers to bounce back and forth such that its electronic eye would be able to scan the GI tract.  The tip will illuminate red, green and blue laser light helping in visuality,  All this processing together combined will give us two-dimensional picture helping in diagnosis.  The images can be retrieved from the recording device worn around patient's waist as a belt.
  • 5. SOME TYPES OF PILL CAMERAS  Capsule endoscopy with Pill Cam ESO can be performed in less than 30 minutes, and the results can be quickly interpreted. Pill cam ESO is used for screening of esophageal pathologies such as Barrett’s esophagus. These patients are usually otherwise healthy, Don’t expect one to die shortly after ingestion of the pill.  Pill Cam ESO video capsules measure 11mm x 26mm and weighs less than four grams. They contain an imaging device and light source at both ends of the video capsule and take up to 18 images per second as it passes down the esophagus.  Pill Cam ESO was initially cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in November 2004 and provides a time-efficient and patient- friendly method for visualization of the esophagus.  Spider pill offers new way to scan for diseases including colon cancer
  • 6. INSIDE A PILL CAMERA OPTICAL DOME LENS HOLDER LENS ILLUMINATING LED’S CMOS IMAGE SENSOR BATTERY ASIC TRANSMITER ANTENNA
  • 7. INSIDE A PILL CAMERA 1.OPTICAL DOME The optical Dome contains the light receiving window. The window along with container are sealed to prevent infiltration of digestive fluids inside the capsule. 2.LENS HOLDER The lens holder is that part of the capsule which accommodates the lens. 3.LENS The lens is that part of the pill camera arranged behind the Light Receiving window. 4.ILLUMINATING LED Around the Lens & CMOS Sensor, four LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) are present. These plural lighting devices are arranged in donut shape.
  • 8. INSIDE A PILL CAMERA 5.CMOS IMAGE SENSOR CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) produces very high quality images. 6. BATTERY Silver oxide primary batteries are used (Zinc/Alkaline electrolyte/Silver oxide). Such a battery has a even discharge voltage, disposable. 7. ASIC TRANSMITTER Two transmitting electrodes are connected to the outlines of ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) Transmitter. 8. ANTENNA The dome containing the antenna is made of no conducting material which is harmless to the human body. Parylene coated on to poly ethylene or polypropylene is used.
  • 9. PROCEDURE  Capsule is swallowed by the patient like a conventional pill.  It takes images as it is propelled forward by peristalsis.  A wireless recorder, worn on a belt, receives the images transmitted by the pill.  A computer workstation processes the data and produces a short video clip or still images.
  • 10. HOW IT WORKS INSIDE THE BODY  Down the Hatch The patient gulps down the capsule, and the digestive process begins. Over the next eight hours, the pill travels passively down the esophagus and through roughly 20 to 25 feet of intestines, where it will capture up to 870,000 images. The patient feels nothing.  Power Up Batteries would be too bulky, so the cam draws its power through induction charging. A vest worn by the patient contains a coil that continuously transmits power  Start Snapping When it reaches the intestines, the cam begins capturing 30 two-mega pixel images per second. Fluorescent and white LEDs in the pill illuminate the tissue walls.  Spin For Close-Ups By mounting the camera facing the side and spinning 360 degrees so that it shoots directly at the tissue walls
  • 11. HOW IT WORKS INSIDE THE BODY  OffloadData Instead of storing each two-mega pixel image internally, Sayaka continually transmits shots wirelessly to an antenna in the vest, where they are saved to a standard SD memory card.  DeliverVideo Doctors pop the SD card into a PC, and software compiles thousands of overlapping images into a flat map of the intestines that can be as large as 1,175 megapixels. Doctors can replay the ride as video and magnify a problem area up to 75-fold to study details.  Leave the Body At around $100, the cam is disposable, so patients can simply flush it away.
  • 12. USES  Crohn's Disease.  Malabsorption Disorders.  Tumors of the small intestine & Vascular Disorders.  Ulcerative Colitis  Medication Related To Small Bowel Injury
  • 13. ADVANTAGES  Painless, no side affects or complications.  Miniature size so can move easily through the digestive system.  Accurate, precise and low power consumption.  Images taken are of very high quality.  Made of bio compatible material.
  • 14. DRAWBACKS AND OVERCOMES  Patients with gastrointestinal structures or narrowing are not good candidates for this procedure due to the risk of obstruction.  The Pill will get stucked if there is a partial obstruction in the small intestine.  Impossible to control Camera behavior.  For one thing when the flash goes off and light flashes out of the patients navel it amuses the doctor but not so much the patient.  Also, although the pill camera is easy to swallow there is considerable discomfort when they pull the camera out.  Users of this camera should also be aware that it is very difficult to find a source that will print out the pictures.  Wal-Mart, and others, absolutely refuse to touch this camera.
  • 15. CONCLUSION  However, this is a camera that still has a long way to go in terms of image quality and lack if control options. While the list of problems has grown shorter it is still too long for a camera of this type. Feels that while much harder to swallow, hope the developing technology would yield better results and offer much wider flexibility and controls for the photographer. So regretfully, we cannot give this camera our full recommendation. Hopefully the next generation will address some of these many issues.