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  1. 1. Chapter One Matter and Life Chem100: General & Consumer Chemistry Natural Sciences Department College of Science & Information Technology
  2. 2. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 2 1.1 Chemistry: The Central Science Chemistry is often referred to as “The Central Science” because it is crucial to all other sciences. Chapter One
  3. 3. The Study of Change NSD - CSIT, ADZU Chapter One 3
  4. 4. Present Definition It is the study of matter – its composition, structure, properties, the changes its undergoes and the energy that accompanies the changes. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 4Chapter One
  5. 5. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 5 u  Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies space – things you can see, touch, taste, or smell. u  Property: a characteristic that can be used to describe a substance. Size, color, temperature are most familiar properties of matter. Less familiar properties include: Chemical composition: what matter is made of. Chemical Reactivity: how matter behaves. Chapter One
  6. 6. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 6 u  Physical Change: Does not alter the chemical makeup of a substance. Change is reversible. Melting of solid ice is a physical change. In this case only change in form takes place and the change is reversible. u  Chemical Change: Alters chemical makeup of a substance. Change is irreversible. Rusting of iron is a chemical change. Here, iron combines with oxygen and produces a new substance rust. u  Nuclear Change: Yields new element(s) not present before the reaction. Chapter One
  7. 7. 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) ⎯→ 2Fe2O3 (s) 2H(g) + 2H (g) ⎯→ 4He↑ NSD - CSIT, ADZU Chapter One 7
  8. 8. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 8 1.2 States of Matter Matter exist in three forms: solid, liquid, and gas. Solid: A substance that has a definite shape and volume. Liquid: A substance that has a definite volume but that changes shape to fill the container. Gas: A substance that has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape. Many substances, such as water, can exist in all three states depending on the temperature. The conversion of a substance from one state into another is known as change of state. Chapter One
  9. 9. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 9Chapter Onez
  10. 10. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 10 The three states - the solid state, the liquid state, and the gaseous state - of water are shown in Figure 1.3 below. Chapter One
  11. 11. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 11Chapter One
  12. 12. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 12 1.3 Classification of Matter u  Pure Substance: Uniform in its chemical composition and properties. Sugar and water are pure substances. u  Mixture: Composition and properties may vary. Different amounts of sugar dissolved in water will determine sweetness of water. Sugar water is an example of a mixture. Chapter One
  13. 13. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 13 u  Chemical Compounds: Substance that can be broken down into simpler substances. Water is a chemical compound since it can be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen by passing electric current through it. u  Element: Substance that can not be broken down chemically into simpler substances. Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen are example of elements. Chapter One
  14. 14. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 14 The classification of matter is summarized in Fig 1.4 below. Chapter One
  15. 15. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 15 1.4 An Example of a Chemical Reaction When the element nickel, a solid metal, is mixed with a colorless solution of hydrochloric acid in a test tube, the nickel is slowly eaten away, the colorless solution turns green, and a colorless gas bubbles out of the test tube. Ni(s) + HCl(aq) ⎯→ NiCl2(aq) + H2↑ Chapter One
  16. 16. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 16 1.5 Chemical Elements and Symbols 115 Elements are known until today. Only 90 of these elements occur naturally, remaining are produced artificially by chemists and physicist. u  Some familiar elements are iron, tin, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, etc. u  Some unfamiliar elements are niobium, rhodium, thulium, californium etc. Chapter One
  17. 17. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 17 Each element has its own unique symbol. –  One or two letter symbols are used to represent elements. –  First letter is always capitalized and the second letter is always a lower case. –  Some symbols came from elements modern name such as ‘H’ for hydrogen, ‘O’ for oxygen, ‘N’ for nitrogen, etc. Chapter One
  18. 18. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 18 u  A few symbols for elements are derived from their Latin names. For example, ‘Na’ for sodium came from its Latin name Natrium. u  All naturally occurring elements are not equally abundant. Oxygen and silicon together constitute 75% of the earth’s crust. u  Chemical Formula: A notation for chemical compound using element symbols and subscripts to show how many atoms of each element are present. Chapter One
  19. 19. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 19 The formula for water is H2O. H2O indicates that two hydrogen and one oxygen combined together to produce water. When no subscript is given for an element a subscript of ‘1’ is understood. Chapter One
  20. 20. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 20 1.6 Elements and the Periodic Table Periodic Table, shown below, is a representation of 113 elements in a tabular format. Chapter One
  21. 21. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 21 Large amounts of information regarding the properties of elements is embedded in periodic table. Elements are roughly divided into 3 groups q  Metals q  Nonmetals q  Metalloids Chapter One
  22. 22. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 22 Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids appear in distinct places on the periodic table Chapter One
  23. 23. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 23 Metals: 89 of the 115 elements are metals. They appear on the left side of the Periodic Table. Some common properties of metals are: q  Solid at room temperature (except mercury which is a liquid) q  Good conductor of heat q  Good conductor of electricity q  Malleable q  Ductile Chapter One
  24. 24. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 24 Nonmetals: Appear on the right side of the Periodic Table. 17 elements are nonmetals. Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity. Out of these 17 nonmetal elements –  Four are gases at room temperature (H, N, O, etc.) –  Five are solids (sulfur) –  One is a liquid (bromine). Chapter One
  25. 25. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 25 Metalloids: Appear between metals on the left side and nonmetals on the right side on the periodic table. Their properties are between metals and nonmetals. Boron, silicon, arsenic are examples of some of the metalloids. Chapter One
  26. 26. A Science for the 21st Century Health and Medicine Breakthroughs of the Recent Century: 1.  Health and Sanitation Systems 2.  Surgery with Anesthesia 3.  Development of Antibiotics and Vaccines 4.  Gene Therapy* (still in experimental stage) NSD - CSIT, ADZU 26Chapter One
  27. 27. A Science for the 21st Century Energy and Environment Fact: Fossil Fuels (Coal, Oil and Natural Gas) are in decline (estimates: 50-100 years) Solution: Turn to Alternative Forms of Energy 1.  Solar Energy 2.  Nuclear Power 3.  Wind Power NSD - CSIT, ADZU 27Chapter One
  28. 28. A Science for the 21st Century Materials Science Materials Developed in the Past: 1.  Plastics 2.  Metal Alloys Materials Being Developed: 1.  Room Temperature Superconductors 2.  Fiber Optics NSD - CSIT, ADZU 28Chapter One
  29. 29. A Science for the 21st Century Food and Agriculture Common Agricultural Chemicals Used: fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides A question of alternatives? Common Food Additives/Preservatives: 1.  In Meat Products – sodium nitrate/nitrite 2.  In Beverages – High-Fructose Corn Syrup NSD - CSIT, ADZU 29Chapter One
  30. 30. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 30 Chapter Summary u  Chemistry is the study of matter. u  Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. u  Physical change does not alter the chemical makeup of a substance. Change is reversible. u  Chemical change alters chemical makeup of a substance. Change is irreversible. u  Pure substances have uniform chemical composition and properties. Chapter One
  31. 31. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 31 Chapter Summary Contd. u  Composition and properties of a mixture may vary. u  Substance that can be broken down into simpler substances is a chemical compound. u  Substance that can not be broken down chemically into simpler substances is known as an element. u  Elements are represented by one or two letter symbols. First letter is always capitalized and the second letter is always a lower case. Chapter One
  32. 32. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 32 Chapter Summary Contd. u  Chemical Formula is a notation for chemical compound to show how many atoms of each element are present. u  Periodic Table is a representation of 115 elements in a tabular format. u  Elements are roughly divided into 3 groups – Metals – Nonmetals – Metalloids Chapter One
  33. 33. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 33 A 21st Century Science u  Health and Medicine u  Energy and Environment u  Materials Science u  Food and Agriculture Chapter One
  34. 34. NSD - CSIT, ADZU 34 End of Chapter 1 Part I Chapter One
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