Hundreds of millions of Urban dwellers in low and middle income nations are at risk from direct and indirect impacts of climate change.
Around 1 billion urban dwellers live in poor quality, overcrowded housing in “Slums” or informal settlement , and high portion of these settlements are on sites at risk from flooding or landslides (Mehrotra et. Al. 2009).
That Climate Change poses a threat to water sources is already apparent through threats from increasing incidents of storms, flooding, drought, and the overloading water and drainage systems in many regions (IWA, 2009; IPCC, 2007).
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined urban agriculture as: “ [A]n industry that produces, processes and markets food and fuel, largely in response to the daily demand of consumers within a town, city, or metropolis, on land and water dispersed throughout the urban and peri-urban area, applying (bio)intensive production methods, using and reusing natural resources and urban wastes to yield a diversity of crops and livestock.”
Facts and figures indicating that UA should take a pivotal role in alleviating Urban poverty couple with climate change.
50% of the world’s population lives in cities.
800 million people are involved in urban agriculture world-wide and contribute to feeding urban residents.
Low income urban dwellers spend between 40% and 60% of their income on food each year.
By 2015, about 26 cities in the world are expected to have a population of 10 million or more . To feed a city of this size – at least 6000 tonnes of food must be imported each day.
Nearly all of the world’s population growth between now and 2030 will be concentrated in urban areas in developing countries, so that by then almost 60 % of people in developing countries will live in cities.
250 million hungry people in the world live in cities.
Fertilizers, pesticides and other agricultural chemicals increased loss of nutrients from the soil and litter level of ecosystems, thus affecting nutrient cycle
UA emphasizes closed nutrient cycles, biodiversity, and effective soil management providing the capacity to mitigate and even reverse the effects of climate change. UA decreases fossil fuel emissions and sequesters carbon in the soil.
The elimination of synthetic nitrogen in organic systems decreases fossil fuel consumption by 33 % and carbon sequestration takes CO 2 out of the atmosphere by putting it in the soil in the form of organic matter which is often lost in conventionally managed soils.
Soil carbon data show that UA practices are among the most effective strategies for mitigating CO 2 emissions .
UA as a means to diversify the income source of poor and to mitigate the nutritional as well as food insecurity gap.
UA provides food security for urban residents by promoting self-sufficiency.
UA as affordable food response to urban poor food demand increase due to Rural - urban migration.
Diverse & multidimensional agricultural systems will allow for the adaptation of crop and farming practices in response to rapidly changing climate conditions and will help to ensure food security (SHIVA).
Increase concentration of greenhouse gases Emission Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are called greenhouse gases.
ENDA targeted the Urban Poor, youth groups, Iddirs (Local traditional neighborhood associations), schools, and relevant government organizations in Addis Ababa.
Objective: Improve the livelihoods of the urban poor in the project area through the promotion and intensifying of Bio-Intensive Gardening (BIG), Small Scale Dairy Production (SSDP) and poultry production.
Result: Created employment and income generating opportunities, and ensured availability and access to food nutrient.
Urban Agriculture to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS.
ENDA Ethiopia targeted HIV/AIDS infected and/or affected urban dwellers in Addis Ababa.
Objectives: Improve the livelihoods, nutrition, health and income of the urban poor households challenged by HIV/AIDS in the project area through the promotion and intensifying of Bio-Intensive Gardening (BIG) and small scale poultry production.
Results: Improved nutrition and health; social inclusion through overcoming fear of stigma, discrimination, and building self-confidence; improved household income; and Encouraged Innovation & entrepreneurship
The global level of urban poverty, currently estimated at 30%, is predicted to grow to 50% by 2020 , with nearly all of this growth taking place in the world’s less developed countries (UN-HABITAT 2004).
climate change will “intensify” preexisting migration by the rural poor households. (UN-HABITAT 2004).
Across Africa desertification and a consequent decline in agricultural output is displacing increasingly large amounts of people. An estimated 10 million people within Africa have been forced to migrate over the last two decades due to desertification or environmental degradation.
almost all members of the vegetable cooperatives come from the Gurage area (Davis: 2005) the Gurages traditionally rural Agriculturalists (O’Connor 1983, cited in Davis:2005) continue to farm in the city because this is the trade and life style they know .
UA can be adapted to mitigate the impact Climate change maintaining Nutrient cycling, enhancing Food Security, Minimize greenhouse gases Emission, enhancing Urban environment, Energy Efficiency and Waste Management.