Revision TOV and LON

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Revision TOV and LON

  1. 1. PRE COMMON TEST
  2. 2. <ul><li>Answering Inference questions for SBQ </li></ul>
  3. 3. STEPS AND EXAMPLE (TEMPLATE) Step 1: Focus Study Source Identify what the question wants you to focus on and infer Step 2: Evidence Gather evidence/ clues from the cartoon and caption Step 3 Infer/ Interpret Contextual knowledge:
  4. 4. Source A Rioting mobs in the German capital over the diktat and betrayal of Germany.
  5. 5. STEPS AND EXAMPLE SBQ Question (a) Step 1: Focus Study Source Identify what the question wants you to focus on and infer Infer from the cartoon issues regarding the Treaty of Versailles Step 2: Evidence Gather evidence/ clues from the cartoon and caption Step 3 Infer/ Interpret Large numbers of people were gathered at the Berlin capital; some were carrying placards, with words written in German, to protest against the TOV Mass demonstration by the German people to express their anger or to show their opposition to the TOV Provenance tells us that they felt they had no choice but to agree to the harsh terms forced on them by the Allies. That is why the Germans called it a diktat or dictated peace. The German people felt humiliated and betrayed by their govt for signing the Treaty that was not agreeable to them. Contextual knowledge: The Germans were resentful of the Treaty and felt betrayed by the Weimar Government who signed the Treaty
  6. 6. <ul><li>Answering Reliability questions for SBQ </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>Answering SEQ </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>P oint </li></ul><ul><li>E laborate Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>E xplain </li></ul><ul><li>L ink </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Oversleeping is ONE OF THE reasons why people are late, however, there are also other reasons. </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>2) GIVEN FACTOR </li></ul><ul><li>P oint: Oversleeping </li></ul><ul><li>E laborate/evidence: oversleeping meant that people waking up at a time later than the time they are supposed to. </li></ul><ul><li>E xplain: When people wake up at a time later than the time they are supposed to, they delay the time which they will leave the house. </li></ul><ul><li>L ink: Therefore, when people overslept, they delay the time of leaving the house, causing them to be late. </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>3) ALTERNATIVE FACTOR 1 </li></ul><ul><li>P oint: LRT break down </li></ul><ul><li>E laborate/evidence: LRT is the main way of transport for most Greenridgeans to come to school. LRT break down would mean that most Greenridgeans will be delayed at the LRT stations. </li></ul><ul><li>E xplain: When the LRT breaks down, it will not ferry Greendridgeans to school at the correct time. It will stop service and students are unable to come to school on time. </li></ul><ul><li>L ink: Therefore, when the LRT breaks down, students will have difficulties coming to school, causing them to be late. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>4) ALTERNATIVE FACTOR 2 </li></ul><ul><li>P oint: traffic jam </li></ul><ul><li>E laborate/evidence: if there is a traffic jam, cars and buses can not bring greenridgeans to school on time </li></ul><ul><li>E xplain: This is because cars and buses can be stuck in a jam for more than an hour </li></ul><ul><li>L ink: Therefore, when there is a traffic jam, students are not able to reach school on time. </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>5) Balanced conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing all sources, oversleeping might be the most common and main reason for why greenridgeans are late for school. This is because if students leave their homes early, there will be lesser possibility of a traffic jam. Also, the number of times the LRT breaks down is only less than 5 times a term. Based on records, the number of times which students are late because of oversleeping is much higher than the other two reasons. Therefore, oversleeping is the main reason for why greenridgeans are often late for school. </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Treaty of Versailles </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>3 main aims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Keeping Germany weak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Getting compensation for Allies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Allowing self-determination </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Did not want Germany to attack France again </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to cripple Germany as a military power </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to ‘get back’ on Germany for making France suffer terribly during the war </li></ul>Georges Clemenceau France Prime Minister
  17. 20. <ul><li>Wanted Germany to be punished </li></ul><ul><li>But worry that if they punished Germany too hard, another war might start </li></ul><ul><li>Been elected by British people to make sure Germany pay a high price </li></ul>David Lloyd George Britain Prime Minister
  18. 21. <ul><li>Wanted a peace that would be fair and cause least resentment </li></ul><ul><li>Germany should be punished, but not too much </li></ul><ul><li>Fourteen Points </li></ul><ul><li>World peace </li></ul><ul><li>Self- determination </li></ul><ul><li>League of Nation </li></ul>Woodrow Wilson USA President
  19. 22. <ul><li>Self determination of peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>Arms reduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Non punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of the League of Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of the Seas. </li></ul><ul><li>No secret treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>Free and open trade. </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>G uilt </li></ul><ul><li>A rmy </li></ul><ul><li>R eparations </li></ul><ul><li>G ermany lost lands </li></ul><ul><li>L eague of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>E xtras </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Many Germans disliked this treaty as German reps were not involved in the discussions which led to it </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had no choice but to agree to the terms forced on it by the Allies </li></ul><ul><li>Diktat or dictated peace </li></ul><ul><li>War Guilt Clause 231: Germany accepted blame ‘for causing all the loss and damage’ of the war. </li></ul>Guilt
  22. 25. <ul><li>Effects for Germans: </li></ul><ul><li>Be blamed for the war </li></ul><ul><li>Pay for all loss and damages </li></ul><ul><li>Fully responsible for payments and blames </li></ul>Guilt
  23. 26. <ul><li>The German armed forces forced to cut back </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Army : Not more than 100,000 men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No airforce or submarines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small number of ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhineland was to be demilitarised permanently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stripped of all troops and fortifications and occupied by Allied Forces for 15 years </li></ul></ul>A rmy
  24. 27. <ul><li>Effects for Germans </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to defend themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Humiliated as they have an army that is smaller than new nations </li></ul>A rmy
  25. 28. <ul><li>Germany and its allies to be blamed for WWI. War reparations – £6,600,000,000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Germans were more angry at this war guilt clause than any other part of the treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of this, Germany was made to pay the enormous sum of £6,600 million – an enormous sum </li></ul></ul>R eparations
  26. 29. <ul><li>Effects for Germans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Might take Germany up to 50 years before the sum was paid in full </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accused France of wanting to “starve their children” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources/ food shortages </li></ul></ul>R eparations
  27. 30. <ul><li>Alsace-Lorraine – France </li></ul><ul><li>Eupen and Malmedy – Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Schleswig – Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Polish Corridor and Upper Silesa-- Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Baltic port of Danzig – League of Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany lost all its colonies: In Africa, Asia and South Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given to Britain, France and their allies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>League of Nations was to ensure smooth administration </li></ul></ul>Germany Lost lands
  28. 31. <ul><li>In addition, Germany had to hand over the Saar coalfields to the League of nations for 15 years </li></ul><ul><li>Profits given to France as part of the reparations </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of 15 years, people to decide their own future </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>Effects for Germans: </li></ul><ul><li>Humiliated to lose lands </li></ul><ul><li>Lose population, land and resources that are important economically to Germany: they can use profits to pay reparations and rebuild Germany </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>Set up of League Of Nations (LON) –10 January 1920 </li></ul>TREATY OF VERSAILLES 1919 League of Nations
  31. 34. <ul><li>Effects for Germans: </li></ul><ul><li>Felt that the League of nations was biased and unfair for rejecting Germany membership </li></ul><ul><li>Germany has no say or not part to play in world matters- this angered Germany </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>FORBID Anschluss: Germany forbidden to unite with German-speaking Austria </li></ul>TREATY OF VERSAILLES 1919 Extras
  33. 36. <ul><li>Effects for Germans: </li></ul><ul><li>Lost German-speaking allies </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot build up power </li></ul>
  34. 38. Can’t the TOV be harsher to Germany? The harsher it is the better!! I like… I think we should punish them!! But isn’t it too harsh for them? Will they come back for revenge? 14 points! 14 points! Self-determination! Let them decide themselves!
  35. 39. <ul><li>Britain gained some German colonies and the German navy was destroyed but : </li></ul><ul><li>Lloyd George thought the treaty was too harsh, saying: &quot;We shall have to fight another war again in 25 years time.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The British diplomat Harold Nicolson called it: &quot;neither just nor wise&quot; and the people who made it: &quot;stupid&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>The economist John Maynard Keynes prophesied that reparations would ruin the economy of Europe. </li></ul>
  36. 40. <ul><li>France got Alsace-Lorraine, German colonies, harsh reparations and a tiny German army but : </li></ul><ul><li>Many French people wanted an independent, not a demilitarised, Rhineland. </li></ul><ul><li>Most French people did not think the League of Nations would protect them against Germany. </li></ul>
  37. 41. <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson got the League of Nations, and new nation-states were set up in Eastern Europe but : </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson thought the treaty was far too harsh. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-determination proved impossible to implement - neither Czechoslovakia or Yugoslavia survived as united countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Americans did not want to get involved in Europe, and in 1920 the American Senate refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles, or join the League of Nations. </li></ul>
  38. 42. <ul><li>League of Nations </li></ul>
  39. 43. Encourage co-operation Keep the peace Reduce armament Improve living conditions AIMS of LON Safeguard the independence of other nations
  40. 45. STRENGTHS Health Committee Financial Help Refugee commission Working conditions Slavery commission
  41. 46. <ul><li>Slow decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of army </li></ul><ul><li>USA’s refusal to joining </li></ul><ul><li>Self-interest of member nations </li></ul>
  42. 47. <ul><li>1) Slow decision making </li></ul><ul><li>All decision had to be unanimous (agreed by everyone) </li></ul><ul><li>Slow to meet and make decisions </li></ul>
  43. 48. Slow decision making The League of Nations had a structure where every single country had to agree in order to get something done. This meant SLOW progress. A picture of the leaders who represented the countries of the League “ We should ban them from trading with us!” “ I think that’s too harsh!” “ Lets deal with the problem straight away!” “ Lets wait and give it more time!” “ We should do it this way.” “ No we shouldn’t. Lets do it my way!” Such arguments meant that it took long periods of time to get anything done.
  44. 49. <ul><li>1) Slow decision making </li></ul><ul><li>This meant that when the League faced major problems, it simply could not act effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence: In both Abyssinia and Manchuria, Italy and Japan occupied the countries before the League could act. with speed. </li></ul>
  45. 50. <ul><li>Slow decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Aims not met: </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the peace </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage cooperation between countries </li></ul><ul><li>Safeguard the independence of other nations </li></ul>
  46. 51. <ul><li>1) Slow decision making </li></ul><ul><li>The League of Nations failed due to its weak organization. As decisions had to be agreed by everyone, it was a slow process. This made the league weak as they were unable to resolve problems quickly and in Abyssinia and Manchuria, their weakness in acting against aggressor countries, hindered their aims of keeping peace, and safeguarding the independence of other nations. </li></ul>
  47. 52. <ul><li>2) Lack of Army </li></ul><ul><li>The league of Nations did not have any army and this made it weak </li></ul><ul><li>The league could only ask member nations for soldiers, but they would not always help </li></ul>
  48. 53. <ul><li>2) Lack of Army </li></ul><ul><li>This meant that the league could not use its power of military sanctions </li></ul><ul><li>And it could not attack countries such as Japan and Italy when they broke the rules. </li></ul>
  49. 54. <ul><li>2) Lack of Army </li></ul><ul><li>Without a body to enforce decisions made by the League, member countries became bold as they were certain that the League would not resort to force. </li></ul><ul><li>They disobeyed laws set by the league and continued to expand their lands by conquest. </li></ul>
  50. 55. <ul><li>2) Lack of Army </li></ul><ul><li>Aims not met </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the peace </li></ul><ul><li>Safeguard the independence of other nations </li></ul>
  51. 56. <ul><li>2) Lack of Army </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the League of Nations failed because of the lack of armed forces since it meant that the League does not have a mechanism from achieving peace and cooperation among its member nations. </li></ul>
  52. 57. <ul><li>3) USA’s refusal to join </li></ul><ul><li>The fact that the USA, the superpower, would not join made the League look weak. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, the fact that the USA was not a member meant that economic sanctions would not work because the USA would go on trading with countries such as Italy and Japan if the League imposed sanctions. </li></ul><ul><li>The USA would also have been a good leader of the League and made decision making and sanctions more effective. </li></ul>
  53. 58. <ul><li>3) USA’s refusal to join </li></ul><ul><li>This meant that the League of Nations could not get support from all its member nations. </li></ul>
  54. 59. <ul><li>3) USA’s refusal to join </li></ul><ul><li>Aims not met: </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the peace </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage cooperation between countries </li></ul>
  55. 60. <ul><li>3) USA’s refusal to join </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, USA’s refusal to join the League made the League of Nations weak and ineffective for organizing all nations. They were unable to encourage cooperation between the countries and could not fully implement laws to keep the peace. </li></ul>
  56. 61. <ul><li>4) The self interest of member nations </li></ul><ul><li>The member nations of the League were not always willing to act beyond their own self-interest. </li></ul>
  57. 62. <ul><li>4) The self interest of member nations </li></ul><ul><li>The British and French would not stop Italy invading Abyssinia because they wanted to trade with Italy and keep it as a friend in any war with Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The British was also unwilling to act against Japan in Manchuria as that will cause problems to the British colonies in Asia. </li></ul>
  58. 63. <ul><li>4) The self interest of member nations </li></ul><ul><li>During the Great Depression in 1929, countries were unwilling to take action such as imposing economic sanctions because this would have cost them money and jobs. </li></ul>
  59. 64. <ul><li>4) The self interest of member nations </li></ul><ul><li>Aims not met: </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the peace </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage cooperation between countries </li></ul>
  60. 65. <ul><li>4) The self interest of member nations </li></ul><ul><li>This shows that the League was not united, had varied aims and did not share a common goal of establishing peace. </li></ul><ul><li>For their own interest of improving their country’s economy, member nations were unable to unite and resolve problems together. Hence, the self-interest of member nations is one of the weaknesses of the League of Nations. </li></ul>
  61. 66. <ul><li>The Rabbit . &quot;My offensive equipment being practically nil, it remains for me to fascinate him with the power of my eye.“ Punch Magazine 1920 </li></ul>

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