Refer to the article People remember 10% Oh Really -
Refer to the article People rememer 10% Oh Really -
This is a quote from Will Thalheimerwww.willatworklearning.com – worth reading this
Why don’t teachers study the brain in school? Why don’t they study the chemicals that are required in the brain for acquisition of knowledge, for memory?
A good article to read is Willingham’s “overlearning”
In between the receptors which gather countless thousands of stimuli from our environment and the expansive repository of information and knowledge of our long-term memory, is short-term memory, or STM.
Recall interval without rehearsal is very low
Let’s practice – I will give you some information I want you to remember. I am a Registered Nurse, licensed in Michigan, Texas, Colorado and Utah. (give reps, rehearse)
What am I? (R.N.) In what states? (Michigan, Texas, Colorado, Utah) Pretty good! Now let’s to another experiment with rehearsal. I am going to tell you a three-letter cluster that you need to remember, and then give you a three-digit number. When you hear the number, repeat it out loud and then count backwards from that number by three as quickly as you can accurately do so, remember - outloud, until I tell you to stop. Okay, here we go: CHJ/506 (time them for 15 seconds. Now write down the three letters I gave you. The answer is CHJ. Raise your hand if you got that right. (Compare to chart on the slide)
This is vital information for teachers!!! No matter what you say to your students, if you want them to remember it, you MUST STOP TALKING and let them “rehearse” it.
For example if you are asked to multiply 53 by 78, you might begin by saying to yourself “eight time three is 24; hold the four in memory, and add the two to the sum of 8 x 5, which is forty, or forty-two… This can be thought of as a kind of workbench in which new and old information is constantly being transformed, combined, and transformed. Working memory is teaming with activity – pulling from STM and LTM and working. The gentleman credited with much of the work on working memory is Alan Baddeley. Let’s try another activity: read the five words on the bottom of the slide and then close your eyes and try to repeat them, ready – read, now close your eyes and say them. How did you do? Okay, let’s try another one:
. Let’s try another activity: read the five words on the bottom of the slide and then close your eyes and try to repeat them, ready – read, now close your eyes and say them. How did you do? Okay, let’s try another one:
Read the words, then close your eyes and say them – How did you do that time? The average on this one is only 2.6 items. Baddeley argues that the span of memory is determined by the speed with which we rehearse information. In the case of verbal material, he proposed that we have an articulatory loop in which we can maintain as much information as we can rehearse in a fixed duration of time.
Baddeley believed we have this articulatory loop – in which we can maintain as much information as we can rehearse in a fixed time period. A similar idea is the phonological loop, which is a rehearsal circuit that holds inner speech for verbal comprehension. Like when you are reading silently, the words you “hold” in your head until you can verbally comprehend them are in the phonological loop. There is also a visuospatial scratchpad that is responsible for rehearsing IMAGES and holding them briefly. All these processes are regulated by a CENTRAL EXECUTIVE, which coordinates attentional activities and governs responses. The central executive acts much like a supervisor who decides which issues deserve attention and which will be ignored. Students with ADD have problems with the central executive. Brain scientists can see which parts of the brain are used in these processes, and the phonological loop and visuospatial scratchpad activate different parts of the brain. Also, shorter intervals activate different lobes of the brain than do longer intervals. How can this information benefit teachers?
Let’s try another example: I will read a list of letters, and you remember as many as you can. Get a pen or pencil ready to write them when I am finished. I will read a few more than seven: T,V,K,A,M,Q,B,R,J,L,E,W Okay, write them down. How did you do? Okay, now let’s try a list of words, same thing, ready: towel, music, boss, target, salad, church, money, helium, sugar, parrot, music, chicken. How did you do?
Let’s try an example of this: I will read a letter sequence, and you recall the letter sequence when I am finished. Ready: FB…IPH…DTW…AIB…M Okay, write them down. Okay, now we are going to do it again, with the same letters, pencils down. Ready: FBI, PHD, TWA, IBM – now how did you do? AMAZING how chunking can make it easier to learn, isn’t it? How can we apply this to our students? (remember there must be something in the LTM for this to work )
R. Conrad, in 1963 found that STM errors were made on the basis of auditory rather than visual characteristics. Basically, people make mistakes on the basis of sound even if they have visually seen it. For example, in this study, when people were SHOWN a P, but HEARD B, and then asked to recall the letter, they recalled it as B. If they were SHOWN an S, but HEARD X, they remembered X. How does this impact teachers? What happens to ideas about “visual” learners?
This theory holds that a circuit of neural acitivity takes place in the brain, with a self-exciting loop of neurons. If the circuit remains active for a period, then some chemical and or structural change occurs and the memory is permanently stored. This encoding doesn’t ensure permanence, however, if information is combined with other, existing, meaningful memories, then long-term memorability is enhanced. Low blood glucose WILL impact student learning in a negative way!!
Model, Lead and Test are all parts of REHEARSAL, which is vital to getting information into the STM. The Delayed Test helps the information remain long enough in STM to be encoded into LTM. Then the additional delayed tests help the student learn to retrieve the information. The more delayed tests, the better. (CHECK NURSE QUESTION AGAIN?)
Cameron and Pierce in 1994 did a meta-analysis of 96 well-controlled experiment that examined the effect of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. The work indicates that extrinsic rewards usually have little or no effect on intrinsic motivation. The only time they found it MIGHT have a negative effect was when the reward was EXPECTED, WAS TANGIBLE, and WAS GIVEN FOR PERFORMING AN ACTIVITY without REQUIRING QUALITY PERFORMANCE.
The brain and learning ppt 2012
The Brain and Learning
The Brain and Learning Research – Be Careful! People remember 10%, 20%...Oh Really? Will Thalheimer www.willatworklearning.com“People do NOT remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what they see, 30% of what they hear, etc. That information, and similar pronouncements are fraudulent. Unfortunately, this bogus information has been floating around our field for decades, crafted by many different authors and presented in many different configurations.”
The Brain and LearningAn Example of “Bogus Science”. 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Chi, M. T. H., Bassok, M., Lewis, M. W., Reimann P., & Glaser, R. (1989). Self-explanations: How students study and use examples in learning to solve problems. Cognitive Science, 13, 145-182
The Brain and LearningThe Graph is a Fraud! (Will Thalheimer – quote)After reading the cited article several times and not seeing the graph---nor the numbers on the graph---I got suspicious and got in touch with the first author of the cited study, Dr. Michelene Chi of the University of Pittsburgh (who is, by the way, one of the worlds leading authorities on expertise). She said this about the graph:"I dont recognize this graph at all. So the citation is definitely wrong; since its not my graph."What makes this particularly disturbing is that this graph has popped up all over our industry, and many instructional-design decisions have been based on the information contained in the graph.
The Brain and Learning The brain is the primary organ involved in learning Our senses are secondary organs involved in learning
Teachers Should Study….. Cognition Sensory perception Brain chemistry Nutrition Memory and Recall Language acquisition Studying cognitive science (the study of how the brain works) is very helpful to teachers
The Brain and Learning - Memory Memory is the most impactful brain function with regard to academic success Memory is more thoroughly studied by cognitive psychologists than any other topic.
Daniel Willingham, PhD Cognitive Psych- Harvard“Willinghams basic theme is that, despite everythingyouve heard, nothing works to increase studentability like factual learning and practice. In fact, oneof his first ideas is to point out that what separatesthe excellent student (or adult) from thoseperforming less well is their ability to recall facts.The more facts you know about your subject, themore you can understand your subject because ofsignificantly less energy spent on fact recall orretention. With facts learned to automaticity, moretime can be spent on higher-order conceptlearning, and once that becomes automatic....etc. Kevin Currie-Knight on D. Willingham
The Brain and Learning - MemoryThe critical thinking we hear so much about teaching our kids simply CANNOT happen without giving kids the requisite background info that must be employed to think critically.Students must have LOTS of information and facts, learned beyond the point of mastery*, to use to learn to think critically.*D. Willingham - Overlearning
The Brain and Learning - Memory Short- Long- Receptors term term memory memoryTiny in capacity but huge in importance, STMseems to be where we first process the stimuli from our environment.
The Brain and Learning - Memory In 1959, a very important discovery was made: Our capacity to store information in a temporary memory bank (STM) is severely limited and susceptible to gross forgetting if we do not have the opportunity to rehearse the information. 100 80 Percent 60 Correctly 40 Recalled 20 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 Recall IntervalCognitive Psychology, Solso, McLin 2005
Rehearsal This is a key factor in what makes some students “smart” TYPICALLY “SMART” STUDENTS: Rehearse naturally Require few rehearsals to place info into STM, and a few more to encode into LTM
Creating Smart Students How can teachers help all students become SMART students? Provide opportunities to rehearse – every time you introduce information students need to master Use choral responses for the most efficient rehearsing
The Brain and Learning - Memory The time between presentation of the letters and recall was filled with the subtraction task, whichprevented efficient rehearsal of the letter sequence. RECALL IS SERIOUSLY ERODED IN THE ABSENCE OF FOCUSED REHEARSAL. The results suggest that if the information was notrehearsed (or if rehearsal is interrupted), it dropped out of memory.
The Brain and Learning - Memory Short- Long- Working term term memory memory memory Working memory is thought to be part of the LTM, but shares some features of STM. It is asystem that temporarily holds and manipulates information as we perform cognitive tasks. WIT, SUM, HARM, BAY, TOP
The Brain and Learning - MemoryWIT, SUM, HARM, BAY, TOP
The Brain and Learning - Memory Short- Long- Working term term memory memory memoryUNIVERSITY, OPPORTUNITY, ALUMINUM, C ONSTITUTIONAL, AUDITORIUM
The Brain and Learning - MemoryShort- Long- Working term term memorymemory memory Articulatory Loop Phonological Loop Visuospatial Scratchpad Central Executive
The Brain and Learning - Memory Allow students opportunities to rehearse information you want them to remember!! Choral responses help you to KNOW they are rehearsing If they don’t participate, they will probably not remember Short chunks of information – short in length Short chunks of information – short in time CONCISE LANGUAGE!
The Brain and Learning - Memory Capacity of Short-Term Memory is approximately 7 items. This is a very consistent number in the research – and holds true regardless of the type of data involved.
The Brain and Learning - Memory More INFORMATION was held in the string of words than in the string of letters, so your memory of those words contained more information, but the same limited number of items. Words are a form of “chunking” which allows us to maximize the STM. The capacity of the STM is increased by our ability to chunk information, but there must be information in the LTM in order to chunk.
The Brain and Learning - Memory AUDITORY CODEShort-term memory seems to operate by means of an auditory code, EVEN IF THE INFORMATION IS DETECTED BY A NONAUDITORY CODE SUCH AS A VISUAL ONE. STM errors were made on the basis of auditory rather than visual characteristics. P/B; S/X
The Brain and Learning - LTMemoryLong-Term Memory is believed to be limitless in capacity. We know about many of the features of LTM: Codes Types of information held there General architecture and organization Capacity Permanence
The Brain and Learning - LTMemoryTheory: Information held long enough in STM is encoded into LTM.Adrenaline and Glucose – memory enhancers:Experiences are remembered better if:Exciting, ego-involving, or traumatic due to adrenaline.Glucose enhances memory!
The Brain and Learning – Retrieval and DecayIf information is rehearsed, it will likely be encoded. If it is not rehearsed, it will likely “decay” by being covered (masked) with other information or displaced by new information. If information is encoded, and we are asked to recall it, we usually can and will.How can we now think about Model, Lead, Test, DT?
The Brain and Learning – Retrieval and DecayDistributed practice over time is better than massed practice – the greater the distribution over time, the better the information is remembered.
Brain Research and Motivation Theory Operant Conditioning: strengthening or weakening of a behavior as a result of its consequences Consequences that strengthen a behavior are called REINFORCERS Consequences that weaken a behavior are called PUNISHERSSpecifically, an event is a REINFORCER if1. It follows a behavior, and2. The future probability of that behavior increases.
Brain Research and Motivation Theory Rewards for behaviors are reinforcers. There are two types of reinforcers, extrinsic and intrinsic. Intrinsic reinforcers are provided by the mere act of performing the behavior. Extrinsic reinforcers are provided by some consequence that is external to the behavior “the dangers of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivations have been greatly overstated” • CAMERON, BANKO, PIERCE, 2001
Brain Research and Motivation Theory They also learned that verbal rewards such a praise often produce an increase in intrinsic motivation, as do TANGIBLE REWARDS given for HIGH-QUALITY performance.
Brain Research and Motivation Theory Previous work has shown that if a decision leads to a successful outcome, it is registered in the brains reward system. The reward stimulus is then relayed to the area of the brain which was responsible for making the decision. In this way, the brain optimizes its processes for improved performance each time.
Brain Research and Motivation Theory Learned Industriousness –according to LIT, if working hard (displaying high effort) on a task has been consistently associated with reinforcement, then working hard might itself become a secondary reinforcer. This can results in a generalized tendency to work hard.
Brain Research and Motivation Theory Experiments with both humans and animals have confirmed this. Students who have been reinforced for solving complex math problems will later write essays of higher quality; rats which have been reinforced for emitting forceful lever presses will then run faster down an alleyway to obtain food.
Brain Research and Motivation Theory Rats and humans that have been reinforced for displaying low effort on a task will show a generalized tendency to be lazy (Eisenberger, 1992).
Brain Research and Motivation Theory Just starting a task is often the most important step in overcoming procrastination; once you start, the work often flows naturally. For this reason, it is sometimes helpful to use certain tricks to get started, such as beginning with a short, easy task before progressing to a more difficult task. This is especially important to teach students so they can successfully complete independent work.
Brain Research and Motivation Theory Should we use rewards with our students? Yes!!! The result: depending on the size of the reward, the subjects were able to subsequently make the correct decision with improved accuracy. "It turns out to be stronger, the higher the reward."
Brain Review USE CONCISE LANGUAGE WHEN TEACHING SPECIFIC CONTENT Chunking helps us increase the capacity of STM Require students to rehearse (without distraction) LTM requires delayed tests and overlearning Reinforcement increases learning Tangible rewards and praise increase motivation Getting started is a skill