How do we do this? Core Knowledge, and LOTS of informational reading done BY THE STUDENTS. Students should read the books WY1stGNTK themselves in class as much as possible!!!
All knowledge systems involve some rote learning—sheer memorization, because there are basic (irreducible) concepts that have nothing to do with reasoning; in English, “z” says “zzz.” In math, 2 and “two” mean //. However, Direct Instruction has less rote learning and more higher-order cognitive learning than most other curricula. For example, in Direct Instruction math, students do not learn “Two plus two equals four” (rote). Instead, they learn a cognitive strategy for solving equations that have 2’s and 4’s in them.
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More on brain training on Thursday – 1 page only
Administration “clears the way” and models this for all levels.
Essential Elements for Maximum Student Achievement:1. Dynamic, accelerated SKILLS TRAINING for all students2. School-wide organizational systems and procedures for maximum Academic Learning Time3. Rich, broad academic content4. Clear application of appropriate pedagogy5. Data collection, reporting and review6. Consistent and relentless brain training7. Parents as partners – home habits8. Scholar Development - Massive amounts of independent reading (outside of school)9. Student character development – connect knowledge, wisdom and virtue10. Administration ―clears the way‖
Essential Element #1:Dynamic, accelerated SKILLS TRAINING for all students Small group instruction based upon achievement level TEACH MORE, FASTER!! DI Curriculum – scientifically proven to be most effective, allows teachers to become expert teachers Students MASTER basic skills at each level which are essential for the next step, allowing them to progress rapidly and without faltering – no ―holes‖.
Essential Element #2: School-wide ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES for maximum ACADEMIC LEARNING TIME (ALT)Classroom procedures – timers, countdowns, taught to MASTERY create efficiency and increased ALTBell to bell teaching! Transition teaching!TEACH MORE, FASTER!!!Teacher Preparation = Maximum ALT!Teachers have schedules and routines – prep time schedules, consistent curriculum and planning time, regular reporting and scheduled collaboration
Learning Time Analyzing Academic Learning Allocated Managem- Time Engageme Time on Success Acedemic Time ent Spend -nt Rate Task Rate Learning Efficiency Teaching Time Typical 60 75% 45 75% 34 80% 27Classroom Minutes (50 - 90%) Minutes (45 – 90%) Minutes (40 – 90%) Minutes Effective 60 85% 51 90% 46 90% 41Classroom Minutes Minutes Minutes Minutes Annual ALT Totals: Effective Schools: 861 hours; Typical Schools: 567 hours A difference of 294 hours, equal to 42 school days!!!
Elements of Effective ALT Academic Focus Drill/ControlledPre-Planned Practice Curriculum Fast PacingNo Interruptions + ReinforcementEfficient Classroom Ratio (3-1) Organization and Accurate Placement Management ParsimoniousSlick Routines Strategies
Elements of Effective ALT Quick Transitions Efficient Sub-SkillInstructional Clarity SequenceTeacher Directed Adequate Practice Presentation Daily MonitoringInteractive Teaching Frequent with Frequent Assessment Student Responding Supportive/Correcti ve Feedback
Essential Element #3: Rich, broad academic content Once students can decode, it is vital to begin immersing them in academic content – high quality literature and informational readings.Core KnowledgeReading UniversityLOGIC PHASE – lots of thinking about and talking about what they know!
Essential Element #3: Rich, broad academic content Vocabulary Development An important international comparison test for reading is the PIRLS, administered to ten-year- olds. Hong Kong went from 14th to 2nd in international ranking on the PIRLS (an important international reading test). a group of researchers at the University of Hong Kong worked to analyze the data from the 2006 PIRLS to determine which instructional factors were associated with student reading achievement.
Essential Element #3: Rich, broad academic content FINDINGS: This analysis showed that four predictor variables were critical:the frequency with which the teacher used materials from other subjects in reading instruction. (THINK Core Knowledge!)using assessment to assign grades. (groupings) the frequency with which students took a quiz or test after reading. using assessment to provide data for national or local monitoring.
Essential Element #3: Rich, broad academic content Once students can decode, background knowledge is crucial to reading comprehension. Ensuring that students have wide-ranging knowledge of the world ideally begins at birth, through a rich home environment. Schools must do everything possible to support and expand that knowledge base, and integrating material from other subjects into the reading curriculum is an important step in the right direction.Daniel Willingham - July 6th, 2009
Essential Element #3: Rich, broad academic content LOTS AND LOTS AND LOTS of facts and information, learned to mastery by each student!
Essential Element #3: Rich, broad academic content A reading of the research literature from cognitive science shows that knowledge does much more than just help students hone their thinking skills: It actually makes learning easier. Knowledge is not only cumulative, it grows exponentially. Those with a rich base of factual knowledge find it easier to learn more—the rich get richer. In addition, factual knowledge enhances cognitive processes like problem solving and reasoning. The richer the knowledge base, the more smoothly and effectively these cognitive processes—the very ones that teachers target—operate. So, the more knowledge students accumulate, the smarter they become. Willingham, 2009
Essential Element #4: Clear application of appropriate pedagogy How much Difference Does a Good Teacher Make?Among students with initially similar achievement levels, Tenn. Researchers found that in Reading and Math students taught by effective teachers for three consecutive years outscored students taught by ineffective teachers by: 34 percentile points in Reading 49 percentile points in Math!!!
Essential Element #4: Clear application of appropriate pedagogy Appropriate pedagogy: Grammar Phase: DI, diModelLeadTestDelayed TestWHAT DIRECT INSTRUCTION IS AND IS NOT:
Essential Element #4:Clear application of appropriate pedagogy – WHAT DI IS AND IS NOT Direct Instruction has the same goals as other approaches that call themselves “constructivist”, “holistic”, or “child centered.” These goals include teaching students to love and be skilled at reading, writing, and math; to love and be skilled at understanding what they read and how math works; and to use skills at reading, writing math and comprehending to achieve objectives in other subjects (e.g., history and science) and activities.
Essential Element #4:Clear application of appropriate pedagogy – WHAT DI IS AND IS NOT Direct Instruction Uses Authentic Literature. The Reading Mastery curriculum uses writings in poetry, fiction, history, plays, women’s literature, multicultural literature, math, astronomy, geography, anatomy, physics, and zoology.
Essential Element #4:Clear application of appropriate pedagogy – WHAT DI IS AND IS NOT Direct Instruction Integrates Smaller Learnings Into Meaningful Wholes. Direct Instruction does not teach basic or simpler skills (parts) in isolation from meaningful contexts (e.g., activities, problems). In the beginning (first 15 minutes) of early lessons in Reading Mastery, the students work on sounds. However, this is done in the context of an activity that is meaningful for students—namely, a quick- paced, small group activity in which all of the students know they are working together to learn a new task, and successfully meet a new challenge.
Essential Element #4:Clear application of appropriate pedagogy – WHAT DI IS AND IS NOT Direct Instruction Is Not Drill and Kill – it IS Drill and Skill! At most, the teacher has students practice an action a few more times until they are ―firm‖. ―Try that again. Once more time. Great!‖ Additional practice—to assure fluency, generalization, retention, and independence (mastery) ---is given later, when the skill is integrated with other skills in larger tasks.
Essential Element #4:Clear application of appropriate pedagogy – WHAT DI IS AND IS NOT Direct Instruction Is Not JUST Rote Learning.2 + __ = 4 and 4 - __ = 2.When students learn how to solve these problems, they automatically know that 2 + 2 = 4.
Essential Element #4:Clear application of appropriate pedagogy – WHAT DI IS AND IS NOT Direct Instruction Is Not Basic Skills Only. In fact, DI focuses much more on higher-order cognitive learning. Half of the Corrective Reading curriculum is on complex forms of comprehension. And in Reading Mastery, students learn to write and analyze stories as soon as they can read.
Essential Element #4:Clear application of appropriate pedagogy – WHAT DI IS AND IS NOT Direct Instruction Is Not Boring and Alienating. In fact, students love it because there is so much individual attention (small groups); it moves quickly (which is great for students with attention problems); they are challenged continually; they are virtually always successful; and each child’s success contributes to the group.
Essential Element #4:Clear application of appropriate pedagogy – WHAT DI IS AND IS NOT Direct Instruction is Not All Teacher Directed. There is much teacher direction in early lessons, especially the first part of lessons—when students are learning new material. But after 20 or so minutes, students work independently (e.g., reading and writing stories). Then they may return to the group to read and discuss each other’s stories. What Direct Instruction Is and Is Not : http://www.uncwil.edu/people/kozloffm/whatdiis.html
Essential Element #5: Data collection, reporting and review Teachers teach to mastery, check for mastery, reteach and recheck for masteryTeachers administer regular assessmentsTeachers report data weeklyTeachers meet to review data and collaborate on strategies to improve student achievement by improving teaching
Essential Element #6: Consistent and relentless brain training Students are taught how to prepare for learning by completing PROCEDURES that CUE their brains ―this is a learning time – engage‖CHAMPsSLANT, Learning PositionBrain GymALWAYS tell students what they are going to be doing – this organizes their brain and ―sets it up‖ for learning
Essential Element #7: Parents as partners Home habits & Parent Communication and Involvement Daily Homework TV Turnoff (videos, computers) Learning Plans – Family Involvement
Essential Element #7: Parents as partners Study TimeBi-monthly reports, progress reports, SIS, emails―Empty chair‖ policyVolunteer opportunitiesPositives, positives, positives!!!
Essential Element #8: Student-initiated knowledge acquisition Massive amounts of independent reading outside of schoolHigh-quality literature and informational reading (Reading University)Accountable for readingWrite about their reading
Essential Element #9: Student character development wisdom andConnect knowledge, virtueStudy heroes (starting in K)Study biographies (science, history)Study virtues that are demonstrated in literature (examples and non-examples )Provide monthly themes to practice virtues - Builders
Essential Element #9: Student character development NOTICE & NAME virtuous behaviorsGive awards and accoladesProvide opportunities to serve at schoolProvide opportunities to serve the communityProvide opportunities to serve the nationProvide opportunities to serve the worldProvide Social Leadership Program – Builders, Ambassadors
Essential Element #10: Administration clears the way