Online Training Resource for Climate Adaptation: Implementing Adaptation - Adaptation Options

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Identifying Possible Means for Adaptation …

Identifying Possible Means for Adaptation

This module provides a general overview of the different categories of climate change adaptation measures and includes the following:
Typology of Adaptation
Preparing for Adaptation
Active Measures

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  • 1. Online Training Resource: Climate AdaptationImplementing Adaptation
  • 2. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: Identifying MeansIdentifying Possible Means for AdaptationThis module provides a general overview of the different categories of climate change adaptationmeasures and includes the following:• Typology of Adaptation• Preparing for Adaptation• Active Measures Climate Adaptation Deborah Davies, Carlo Aall, Eli Heiberg, 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 3. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: Adaptation OptionsTypes of AdaptationAdaptation measures or options vary dependingon many factors.For example, adaptation measures can beclassified based on the sectors considered.Alternatively, adaptation measures can beclassified based on the timing, goal and motive oftheir implementation.Accordingly, adaptation can include reactive oranticipatory actions, or can be planned orautonomous (UNFCCC, 2006 and TERI, IPCC,2007). Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
  • 4. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: Adaptation OptionsAdaptation ResponsesAdaptation responses can be clustered into thefollowing broad categories:Technological solutions - grey measures;Ecosystem-based adaptation solutions - greenmeasures;Behavioural, managerial and policy approaches - softmeasures.Green and soft measures specifically aim at decreasingthe sensitivity and increasing the adaptive capacity ofhuman and natural systems, basically buildingresilience. They often provide low-cost solutions andwe know enough for their implementation. Source: EEA(European Environmental Agency) 2010: Adapting to climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
  • 5. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: Adaptation OptionsTypes of AdaptationDepending on the timing, goal andmotive of it’s implementation, adaptationcan be either reactive of anticipatory.Reactive adaptation occurs after theinitial impacts of climate change becomeevident; however, anticipatoryadaptation occurs before the impactsare obvious. For example, adaptation ina natural system is reactive by nature,while in a human system it can be bothreactive as well as anticipatory. Adaptation Options Source: IPCC, 2001 Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
  • 6. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: Adaptation OptionsTypes of AdaptationShort-term vs Long-term AdaptationSome adaptation measures"are appropriate"in the short-termwhile others are more proper in the long-term. For example,changing crop"varieties or adjusting planting/ harvestingdates are short-term measures that can be used by farmers.Transforming agricultural production system"itself into amore"resilient system to climate change such as integratedfarming is a longer term adaptation strategy. Long-termsolutions also include insurance and banking S. Niggol Seo (Lead Author);Kevin Vranes (Topic Editor) "Adaptations to climate change". In: Encyclopedia of Earth. http://www.eoearth.org/article/ Adaptations_to_climate_change Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
  • 7. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: Adaptation OptionsTypes of AdaptationPublic AdaptationSome adaptation measures"can be"taken individually.However,"other adaptation measures"will require a publicintervention to provide them efficiently. For example,subsistent farmers may not be able to"purchase a cropinsurance"due to capital constraints. The current irrigationsystems in California were established with a heavy supportfrom the State government. Market failures can result in theprovision of public adaptation measures due to their publicgoods’ nature. For example, a cure for Malaria cannot bedeveloped efficiently. S. Niggol Seo (Lead Author);Kevin Vranes (Topic Editor) "Adaptations to climate change". In: Encyclopedia of Earth. http://www.eoearth.org/article/ Adaptations_to_climate_change Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
  • 8. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: Adaptation OptionsCategories of Climate Adaptation Measures Adapting to current climate Adapting to climate change Prepare for • Strengthen the institutional • Strengthen the institutional adaptation capacity capacity • Analyse climate vulnerabilities • Analyse climate change vulnerabilities • Inform about climate change vulnerabilities • ”Wait-and-see” Doing actual Making up potential maintenance • Effect-oriented adaptation adaptation delay measures • Cause-oriented adaptation measures Source: The Western Norway Research Institute, 2011. Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
  • 9. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: Adaptation MeasuresStrengthening Institutional Capacity• Political competence – e.g. in connection with training of newly elected local government representatives• Administrative competence – either by hiring experts or by strengthening the competence of existing staff• Administrative capacity – findings from many analyses of criteria for municipal environment work shows that the main problem is rarely a lack of competence, but rather a lack of capacity• Integrating considerations of climate adaptation in planning processes – Improving existing routines or establishing new administrative routines and procedures• Changing the perspective on knowledge from conventional to alternative knowledge – e.g. making use of alternative methods for surface water treatment a supplement to, or substitute for, focusing on increasing pipeline dimensions Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
  • 10. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: Adaptation MeasuresFinal key points on implementation• Analyzing vulnerability to climate change by taking into consideration the effects of both climate change and socio-economic change.• Informing the local population about the results of the local analyses of climate vulnerability and the need for climate adaptation.• Making up the current maintenance delay with regards to physical infrastructure.• “Wait-and-see”, in the case of: – A basic knowledge deficit – A lack of resources – An absence of government guidelines Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource