Online Training Resource for Climate Adaptation: Evaluating Techniques- Addressing Barriers to Adaptaiton

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Barriers to Climate Specific Adaptation

This module provides a typology of barriers, and suggests a method to assess barriers and thus, ideally, avoid such barriers.

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  • Online Training Resource for Climate Adaptation: Evaluating Techniques- Addressing Barriers to Adaptaiton

    1. 1. Online Training Resource: Climate Adaptation Evaluating Techniques
    2. 2. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationBarriers to Climate Specific AdaptationThis module provides a typology of barriers, and suggests a method to assess barriers and thus, ideally,avoid such barriers. Climate Adaptation Deborah Davies, Carlo Aall, Eli Heiberg, 2012 Online Training Resource
    3. 3. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationBarriers to implementationThere are significant barriers to implementing adaptation.These include both the inability of natural systems toadapt to the rate and magnitude of climate change, as wellas technological, financial, cognitive and behavioural andsocial and cultural constraints.There are also significant knowledge gaps for adaptationas well as impediments to flows of knowledge andinformation relevant for adaptation decisions. Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    4. 4. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationTypes of barriers• Goal barriers – Conflicts of interest pertain to conflicts between different goals. – e.g. the desire to establish residential houses near seas and lakes versus the goal of preventing such construction because of the risk of ocean rise and inundation.• Instrument barriers – Barriers related to the choice of instruments. – e.g. whether or not the municipality should expropriate land or make it voluntary for land- owners to sell land.• Organisational barriers – Pertain to how the climate adaptation effort is organised.• Uncertainty barriers – Pertain to various forms of knowledge deficit in analyzing climate vulnerability and how this may obstruct climate adaptation. Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    5. 5. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationConflicts for land development in relation to the adaptation measure:• Avoid building infrastructure in areas at risk – conflicts between a climate resilient pattern of development and town development • Private economic interests • Political goals (e.g to minimise transportation needs in town development)• Risk of maladaptation – Creating transportation needs in conflict with mitigation policies – Town development on agricultural land in conflict with other adaptation needs Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    6. 6. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationThe Importance of Uncertainty BarriersThe connection between climate parameters and geo-hazards• General – The connection between climate parameters and geo-hazards• Local – The areas at risk at todays climate – The areas at risk in the local climate projections Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    7. 7. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationInstrument barriers• The government funding of local analyses of geo-hazards.• The government funding of local protection measures -The large regional and local differences in areas at risk of geo- hazards makes it an impossible task for some regions to cover the expenses. Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    8. 8. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationOrganisational Barriers• The lack of administrative capacity, especially within land-use planning – both in regard to implementing measures and in regard to the scope and quality of the measures implemented.• The lack of administrative competence – especially when it comes to the quality of measures.• A lack of political competence is a barrier to a comprehensive approach to climate adaptation, – i.e. one which sees adaptation in connection with other environmental challenges, emissions of climate gases and long-term sustainable development. Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    9. 9. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationLevels and Degrees of Barriers• First-degree barriers – Refers to whether or not the measure should be carried out at all. – A first-order barrier may include a lack of a given competence or skill.• Second-degree barriers – Pertain to the quality of the measure, i.e. that the measure is implemented, but the desired outcome was not achieved – A second-degree barrier could arise because the necessary competences or skills are not sufficiently developed or accessible. Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    10. 10. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationTemplate of Barriers Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    11. 11. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationHow Much Adaptation Can We Take? Diagram2 Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    12. 12. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationFinal key points The Fourth Assessment Report from IPCC’s Working Group II (Parry et al., 2007) points to a rangeof environmental, economic, informational, social, attitudinal, and behavioural constraints thatimpede the adaptation:1) The level of uncertainty associated with climate change makes it difficult to not only calculate risks but also the potential benefits from investments in adaptation.2) Measuring the impacts of climate change at a local level depends on the downscaling and calibration of global models, which is still an immature science.3) There is a lack of information on adaptation costs, in part, because it is complicated to account for, and to estimate costs related to, the effects of adaptive capacity building-processes4) Issues of scale and long time-frames can make the need to respond more remote and removed from the current context (Zermoglo et al., 2011). Zermoglio, F., Taylor, R., Devisscher, T., Taylor, A., Smith, B., Downing, T., et al. (2011, March 30). Adaptation Targets | weADAPT 4.0. http://weadapt.org/knowledge-base/adaptation-decision-making/Adaptation-Targets Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    13. 13. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationFinal key pointsPerceptions of barriers to adaptation also limit actions, even when capacities and resources toadapt are available. These perceptions vary among individuals and groups within populations andeven the scientific community itself.For example, under the logic of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) definition of climate change in 1994, climate specific adaptation was viewed as a cost ofclimate change; any potential benefits of the adaption measures were not considered (Pielke, 2005).The IPCC presented a broader definition of climate change, and outlined the potential foradaptations to have benefits. Here, adaptation is treated as a facet of sustainable development,representing a resource investment rather than a financial loss. Pielke, R. A. (2005). Misdefining “climate change”: consequences for science and action. Environmental Science & Policy, 8(6), 548–561. Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    14. 14. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationFinal key points• Adaptation to climate change is multidimensional, encompassing various impacts, sectors, actions, and governance levels. It is closely linked to development processes, and involves a range of activities, actions, decisions, and attitudes that reflect existing social norms and processes• Current thinking proposes that adaptation mainstreaming is probably the most efficient way of tackling multidimensional adaptation needs (Dessai & der Sluijs, 2007, Hammill & Tanner, 2011). Mainstreaming involves factoring climate risks into social, economic, and environmental planning and facilitates climate-resilient development. However, the theory of adaptation is less problematic than its implementation. Dessai, S., & der Sluijs, J. v. (2007). Uncertainty and Climate Change Adaptation - a Scoping Study,. Utrecht : Department of Science Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University. Hammill, A. and T. Tanner (2011), “Harmonising Climate Risk Management: Adaptation Screening and Assessment Tools for Development Co-operation”, OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 36, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg706918zvl-en. Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    15. 15. Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Barriers to AdaptationFinal key pointsFinally it needs to be acknowledged that successful adaptation can not happen if:• the changes in climate are too great• the costs of adaptation are too high• both organisations/ institutions and the general public do not accept that impacts have beenaverted• responses do more harm than goodIs is vital therefore that• mitigation is seen as necessary to avoid limits• there is a cultural and institutional awareness of ‘expensive fixes’• decisions are legitimate and based on the best information available• all potential adaptation decisions are screened for maladaptation Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource

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