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Cancer chemotherapy
 

Cancer chemotherapy

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cancer chemotherapy

cancer chemotherapy
cell life cycle
basic subclass
alkylating agent
anti metabolite
alkaloids
antibiotics

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  • 2 functional phase and 2 preparatory phasecheckpoints
  • During this phase DNA are separated for synthesis or transcryption
  • They block DNA synthesis
  • short
  • They r cytotoxic damaging the cell in entire the cell cycle
  • Cross-linking prevents DNA from being separated for synthesis or transcription
  • Folic acid antagonist: binds to dihydrofolatereductase preventing nucleoside productionPurine are required for DNA and RNA synthesis
  • Trastuzumab: HER2 rec, breast cancerBevacizumab: VEGF, preventing angiogenesis of tumor
  • Toxic to GIT: nausea, vomitting, stomatitisAlopeciaNot all drugs used in cancer cause bone marrow suppression, nausea, vomitting, hair loss.

Cancer chemotherapy Cancer chemotherapy Presentation Transcript

  • Cancer Chemotherapy
  • Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
  • G2 MS Cell Life Cycle Many cancer chemotherapy agents are described by how they affect the cell G1 cycle
  • G2 MS Cell Life Cycle The M phase is Mitosis which is cellular division G1
  • G2 MS Cell Life Cycle Drugs that block mitosis are: G1 M Phase CCS (cell cycle specific) Antimitotic
  • G2 MS Cell Life Cycle The G1 phase is the First Growth G1 Phase
  • G2 MS Cell Life Cycle The S phase is the DNA Synthesis G1 Phase
  • G2 MS Cell Life Cycle Drugs that block DNA synthesis are G1 S Phase CCS (cell cycle specific)
  • G2 MS Cell Life Cycle The G2 phase is the Second G1 Growth Phase
  • G2 MS Cell Life Cycle Drugs that block growth after DNA G1 synthesis are: G2 Phase CCS
  • Many drugs are : G2 Cell Cycle Non M Specific CCNS Meaning they areS CCNS cytotoxic during the entire cell cycle G1
  • Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
  • Alkylating Agents• The first alkylating agents were derived from nitrogen mustards• Nitrogens mustards were used in WW1 as chemical warfare agents (mustard gas) causing blistering of the skin (vesicants)
  • Alkylating Agents• Later found to be very effective in treating cancer• The alkylating agents form reactive molecular species that alkylate nucleophilic groups on DNA bases, particularly the N-7 position of guanine• The alkylating agents cross-link DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis• CCNS that damage DNA
  • Alkylating Agents G2 CCNS M Meaning they areS CCNS cytotoxic during the entire cell cycle G1
  • Alkylating Agents• Nitrogen Mustards – Chlorambucil – Cyclophosphamide• Platinum analogs – Cisplatin – Carboplatin• Others – Busulfan – Procarbazine
  • Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
  • Antimetabolites S Cell Cycle• Folic Acid antagonist – Methotrexate (MTX)• Purine Antagonist Antimetabolites interfere – Mercaptopurine (6-MP) with DNA and RNA production• Pyramidine Antagonist S Phase CCS meaning they – Florouracil (5-FU) stop the DNA synthesis – Capecitabine (Xeloda) • 5-FU prodrug
  • Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
  • Plant Alkaloids MMitotic Inhibitors Cell Cycle• Interfere with microtubules – Taxane. Eg: • Paclitaxel, Docetaxel• Binds to tubulin – Vinca Alkaloids • Vinblastine, Vincristine
  • Plant AlkaloidTopoisomerase Inhibitors• Camptothecins S Cell Cycle• Epipodophyllotoxin
  • Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
  • Antibiotics• Anthracycline – Not only block DNA synthesis, but damage DNA during all phase of the cell cycle – Too toxic to use for bacterial infections • Daunorubicin • Idarubicin • Epirubicin • Mitoxantrone (analog) CCNS Cytotxic during the entire cell cycle
  • Antiboitics• Bleomycin – Not only interfere with DNA synthesis and damage – Especially active during G2 phase G2 Cell Cycle
  • Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
  • Hormones• Glucorticoids – Prednisone use in combination with other agents in treatment of leukimias and lymphomas• Estrogen Antagonist – Tamoxifen, estrogen rec modulator used to treat breast cancer• Androgen Antagonist – Flutamide, used to treat prostate carcinoma
  • Hormones• GnRH analogs – Used to treat prostate carcinoma • Leuprolide • Goserelin• Aromatase Inhibitors – Inhibits estrogen formation – Used to treat breast carcinomas • Anastrozole (ANAS) • Letrozole (LTZ)
  • Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
  • Biologic Response Modifiers• Interferons – Interfere DNA & RNA synthesis – Effective againts certain leukemias and lymphomas• Monoclonal Antibodies – Trastuzumab – Bevacizumab – Rituximab
  • Side Effects of Chemotherapy• Bone marrow suppression• Impaired wound healing• Hair follicle damage• GI epithelium damage• May be carcinogenic