Response to Intervention (RTI)
Through a Consultation &
This presentation will allow you to see how a
Response to Intervention (RTI) system is
developed and fostered within an elementary
Group 2 (C.A.P.A. Education Consultants,
Inc.) will provide consultation on the RTI
We will follow the stages of consultation &
collaboration as we progress through the
PowerPoint and use a factious student (Mark)
as an example of the RTI process.
Stages of Consultation & Collaboration
Exploring organization needs
Physically entering the system
Psychologically entering the system
Defining the problem
Generating possible interventions
Choosing an intervention
Formulating a plan
Implementing the plan
Evaluating the plan
Evaluating the consultation process
Planning postconsultation matters
Reducing involvement and following up
Four phases of Entry
Exploring Organizational Needs
Physically Entering the System
Psychologically Entering the System
C.A.P.A. Education Consultants, Inc. was
contacted by James Dean, the principal of
Hawkeye Elementary, in December 2008.
Mr. Dean stated students’ reading scores are
low and the teachers are frustrated as their
typical interventions have not improved their
students’ reading abilities. He would like to
implement RTI into the school but is unsure
Mr. Dean asked what we could do to help.
After providing Mr. Dean with a quote, the
school board voted on hiring us as
consultants for the school.
Upon our first visit to the school in late
December, we signed the contract and was
provided a tour of the school by Mr. Dean.
We scheduled meetings with the entire staff
on the 2 instructional days before school
starts in January to introduce ourselves and
start the diagnosis stage.
Four phases of Diagnosis
Defining the Problem
Generating Possible Interventions
After meeting with school staff and discussing the
problems students and staff are experiencing, it was
decided to implement RTI within the school.
Based on the staffs needs, RTI training was conducted on
the 2 instructional days for a better understanding of the
RTI process and differentiated instruction.
Teams formed to evaluate student progress
Teams meet weekly to conduct progress monitoring
Students are provided support as soon as they struggle
Teachers implement differentiated instruction into the
After the staff were trained, the team moved onto
discussing student problems.
As a consultation team, we discussed the different ways
of gathering information on how students, including Mark,
were performing in the classroom and on their daily work.
It was decided to use a combination of genetic data
(looking at past test scores and daily work scores) and
client system behavior data (what areas specifically are
students having trouble).
By looking at students’ test scores and assignments, the
team is able to get a better idea of the specific areas in
reading that are giving students, including Mark, trouble.
The team also decides to look at students’ attendance
records as well. Missing many days of school can cause
gaps in learned information.
As another means of gathering information to
pinpoint the specific problems that need to be
targeted for struggling students, the team also
chooses to interview students, the parents, and
the classroom teachers of students scoring in the
bottom 10 percent compared to their peers (This
includes our factious student Mark).
Talking with all of those involved, each person is
able to discuss what they feel is a problem and
talking to the students allows the team to gain
their perspective of how they feel during reading
Now that the team has compiled all of the data
from the tests, interviews, previous data, and
observations, it is time to specifically state where
the problem is for each student.
Our factious student Mark is not reading words
fluently or accurately when timed.
It is decided to place the students into separate
tiers after benchmarks are administered.
Setting goals is an important part of the
consultation process because it lays out solutions
After discussing with staff, it is determined that the
goals of this consultation process are to learn
about RTI and implement RTI the rest of the school
The other goal is to have at least 50 percent of
struggling students to raise their reading scores
from the middle benchmark to the end of the year
The team decided to set individual student goals
once benchmarks are completed.
Four phases of Implementation
Choose an Intervention
Formulate a Plan
Implement the Plan
Evaluate the Plan
Benchmarks are administered at the beginning, middle, and end
of the year on all students to see how they are doing and
Benchmarks are administered to all students as it is the middle of
the school year. Based on the results, the team divides the
students into the 3 tiers. It is decided the top 2 tiers will be
progress monitored and put into appropriate interventions.
Students in tier 2 interventions tend to receive the intervention in
small groups whereas students in tier 3 interventions tend to
receive the intervention one-on-one.
Tier 1 students are typically only provided the instruction and
curriculum they currently receive. This is about 85 percent of the
Students in tier 1 will be benchmarked three times per year. In
addition to the 3 benchmarks, tier 2 and tier 3 students are
progress monitored weekly to see how they are responding to the
interventions they are receiving.
Teachers begin to differentiate instruction to tier 2 and 3 students beginning
Weekly team meetings occur discussing only students that are not meeting
benchmark standards or students in tier 1 starting to fail, and students not
responded to current interventions in tier 2 and 3.
Mark is not responding to the differentiated instruction happening in the
classroom and his scores are falling. Mark’s goal is to read 90 words
correctly in a minute by the end of the school year.
The team discusses possible interventions of repeated reading, Six-Minute
solution, reading recovery, and reading mastery.
During the process of choosing an intervention; the consultation team
reminded the progress monitoring team to choose an intervention that will
have a high probability of success, is easy to implement, and requires the
least amount of time.
When formulating a plan, the consultation team helped the team determine
if it is linked to the established goals, brainstorms generates a variety of
plans, and the steps in the plans should be sub-goals.
The team determined to try repeated reading as an intervention for Mark.
Progress monitoring will help determine if this intervention will be
The team, along with the consultation team, continues to progress monitor
and after a few weeks, it is determined that Mark is not making the expected
progress. The consultation team guided the team through an evaluation to
determine if the intervention was implemented as originally planned, what
problems were encountered in the implementation, and how these problems
affected the outcomes.
After discussion of possible interventions, the team determined to try
reading recovery with Mark.
The consultation team reminds the progress monitoring team to choose an
intervention what will have a high probability of success, is easy to implement,
and requires the least amount of time.
After several more weeks, the team saw Mark falling more than before with the
reading recovery intervention.
The team chose an intervention from their list of possible of interventions and
with the assistance of the consultation team ,chose to try Reading Mastery.
Again in this process the consultants guided the team through the evaluation of
the intervention, choosing an intervention, formulating a plan and implementing
The team continues to progress monitor and meet weekly to determine if the
interventions are working and students are making appropriate progress. Mark
is improving and meeting benchmark standards. The team determines Reading
Mastery is an appropriate intervention for Mark and continues with this
intervention for the remaining school year.
Explanation of the Graph
The red dots and lines indicate how many
correct words Mark reads in a minute.
The green dots and lines indicate how many
errors Mark makes within the minute reading
The black line sloping upward indicates the
growth that we want Mark to make throughout
the school year.
The vertical lines with the interventions listed
indicates when the interventions were
implemented with Mark.
Four phases of Disengagement
Evaluating the Consultation Process
Reducing Involvement and Following Up
As the consultation process winded down, our
consultation team reviewed our work together and
shared our experiences and perceptions about the
The consultants got together with the school staff
(consultees) and discussed each stage of the
We utilized selected questions about how the plan was
carried out in the implementation stage, the overall
effects of consultation and the consultant’s behaviors,
and the efficacy of certain stages and phases along the
We concluded that although we had to try
several different interventions with
different students, the overall process
went quite smoothly.
The staff were trained in RTI and through
the process of using RTI, they were able
to help all students, including Mark,
complete the rest of the school year
The staff felt comfortable with using RTI at
the end of the school year, so it was
decided to plan post-consultation matters
and reduce consultant involvement.
The consultation team decided to meet 3
times over a three month period (once a
month) to discuss progress and follow up
on their performance.
By planning several meetings before ending the
consultation process, the staff felt comfortable in
the interventions that they would provide as part
of RTI, and we have avoided an abrupt
During a follow up phone call during the
beginning of the next school year, the principal
and staff expressed that the students have been
thriving and the teachers were implementing RTI
successfully, and they have been very satisfied
with the previous consultation process.
C.A.P.A. Education Consultants, Inc. hope
this PowerPoint was informational and gave
you an idea of what RTI looks like within a
Thank you for viewing this PowerPoint and
good luck with consultation and collaboration
in your futures!