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Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead (Roberto Di Cosmo)

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In this series of talks, our panel of experts present real world examples that illustrate how Lean Production concepts are being successfully applied to software development. In particular to …

In this series of talks, our panel of experts present real world examples that illustrate how Lean Production concepts are being successfully applied to software development. In particular to applications that have to meet the highest levels of safety and security.

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  • 1. Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead Computer Science Professor University Paris Diderot http://www.dicosmo.org roberto@dicosmo.org March 26th, 2009 Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 2. Free Software : a reminder Free (french : gratuit) : software you do not pay for (today) Free (french : libre) : software with 4 rights use study and modify distribute distribute sources (even modified) (see for example http://www.opensource. org/docs/definition.php). There are obligations too, according to the licence : GPL/BSD/Mozilla/X, etc. Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 3. Economy Reminder : ´conomics : the study of how society chooses to allocate scarce e resources to produce, exchange, and consume goods and services. Ruffin, Gregory, “Principles of Economics”, 1990 Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 4. Economy Reminder : ´conomics : the study of how society chooses to allocate scarce e resources to produce, exchange, and consume goods and services. Ruffin, Gregory, “Principles of Economics”, 1990 Without scarcity, there is no economy. Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 5. Economy Reminder : ´conomics : the study of how society chooses to allocate scarce e resources to produce, exchange, and consume goods and services. Ruffin, Gregory, “Principles of Economics”, 1990 Without scarcity, there is no economy. Let’s remember this when revisiting the software industry . . . Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 6. Software economy, old style proprietary software based on an artificial “scarcity” of copies of a piece of software . . . Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 7. Software economy, old style proprietary software based on an artificial “scarcity” of copies of a piece of software . . . This follows a push approach : identify a market Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 8. Software economy, old style proprietary software based on an artificial “scarcity” of copies of a piece of software . . . This follows a push approach : identify a market develop a “one size fits all” software solution Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 9. Software economy, old style proprietary software based on an artificial “scarcity” of copies of a piece of software . . . This follows a push approach : identify a market develop a “one size fits all” software solution sell licences to a lot of users, . . . if you can Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 10. Software economy, old style proprietary software based on an artificial “scarcity” of copies of a piece of software . . . This follows a push approach : identify a market develop a “one size fits all” software solution sell licences to a lot of users, . . . if you can make sure the users will need new versions, often. . . Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 11. Remember this ? Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 12. Remember this ? Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 13. Remember this ? Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 14. Remember this ? Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 15. Remember this ? Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 16. Remember this ? Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 17. Remember this ? It is from the 1980’s, and yet we still see it happen too often ! Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 18. Free Software and innovation In the proprietary software world, the frontiers among architects, programmers, testers, service providers, educators and users are rigid, by necessity. Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 19. Free Software and innovation In the proprietary software world, the frontiers among architects, programmers, testers, service providers, educators and users are rigid, by necessity. The acces to source code given by Free Software may blur them ! This does not happen by itself ! Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 20. Free Software and innovation In the proprietary software world, the frontiers among architects, programmers, testers, service providers, educators and users are rigid, by necessity. The acces to source code given by Free Software may blur them ! This does not happen by itself ! Phases of a successful FS : Martin Michlmayr (ex Debian leader) Cathedral phase Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 21. Free Software and innovation In the proprietary software world, the frontiers among architects, programmers, testers, service providers, educators and users are rigid, by necessity. The acces to source code given by Free Software may blur them ! This does not happen by itself ! Phases of a successful FS : Martin Michlmayr (ex Debian leader) Cathedral phase Transition phase Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 22. Free Software and innovation In the proprietary software world, the frontiers among architects, programmers, testers, service providers, educators and users are rigid, by necessity. The acces to source code given by Free Software may blur them ! This does not happen by itself ! Phases of a successful FS : Martin Michlmayr (ex Debian leader) Cathedral phase Transition phase Bazaar phase Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 23. Free Software and innovation In the proprietary software world, the frontiers among architects, programmers, testers, service providers, educators and users are rigid, by necessity. The acces to source code given by Free Software may blur them ! This does not happen by itself ! Phases of a successful FS : Martin Michlmayr (ex Debian leader) Cathedral phase Transition phase Bazaar phase Original “idea” Project Author Core developers Unix philosophy Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 24. Free Software and innovation In the proprietary software world, the frontiers among architects, programmers, testers, service providers, educators and users are rigid, by necessity. The acces to source code given by Free Software may blur them ! This does not happen by itself ! Phases of a successful FS : Martin Michlmayr (ex Debian leader) Cathedral phase Transition phase Bazaar phase Original “idea” ”Interest” Project Author ⇒ Prototype ⇒ Core developers Modular design Unix philosophy Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 25. Free Software and innovation In the proprietary software world, the frontiers among architects, programmers, testers, service providers, educators and users are rigid, by necessity. The acces to source code given by Free Software may blur them ! This does not happen by itself ! Phases of a successful FS : Martin Michlmayr (ex Debian leader) Cathedral phase Transition phase Bazaar phase Distributed Original “idea” ”Interest” development Project Author ⇒ Prototype ⇒ Community Core developers Modular design Parallel maintenance Unix philosophy Peer reviews Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 26. Free Software and innovation In the proprietary software world, the frontiers among architects, programmers, testers, service providers, educators and users are rigid, by necessity. The acces to source code given by Free Software may blur them ! This does not happen by itself ! Phases of a successful FS : Martin Michlmayr (ex Debian leader) Cathedral phase Transition phase Bazaar phase Distributed Original “idea” ”Interest” development Project Author ⇒ Prototype ⇒ Community Core developers Modular design Parallel maintenance Unix philosophy Peer reviews Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 27. Software economy, new style free software removes the “scarcity” of copies, exposing the other scarce resources : know-how, infrastructure, process, industrialization, customization skills etc. Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 28. Software economy, new style free software removes the “scarcity” of copies, exposing the other scarce resources : know-how, infrastructure, process, industrialization, customization skills etc. This follows a pull approach : identify a need Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 29. Software economy, new style free software removes the “scarcity” of copies, exposing the other scarce resources : know-how, infrastructure, process, industrialization, customization skills etc. This follows a pull approach : identify a need develop a software prototype Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 30. Software economy, new style free software removes the “scarcity” of copies, exposing the other scarce resources : know-how, infrastructure, process, industrialization, customization skills etc. This follows a pull approach : identify a need develop a software prototype build a community Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 31. Software economy, new style free software removes the “scarcity” of copies, exposing the other scarce resources : know-how, infrastructure, process, industrialization, customization skills etc. This follows a pull approach : identify a need develop a software prototype build a community set up an ecosystem, with users, developers, architects, educators, service providers, cooperating Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 32. Software economy, new style free software removes the “scarcity” of copies, exposing the other scarce resources : know-how, infrastructure, process, industrialization, customization skills etc. This follows a pull approach : identify a need develop a software prototype build a community set up an ecosystem, with users, developers, architects, educators, service providers, cooperating This requires all the members of the ecosystem to understand the rules, and follow them. Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 33. Free Software Lessons vs. Lean principles : similar culture Value Every good work of software starts by scratching a developer’s personal itch. Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 34. Free Software Lessons vs. Lean principles : similar culture Value Every good work of software starts by scratching a developer’s personal itch. Customer first Treating your users as co-developers is your least-hassle route to rapid code improvement and effective debugging. Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 35. Free Software Lessons vs. Lean principles : similar culture Value Every good work of software starts by scratching a developer’s personal itch. Customer first Treating your users as co-developers is your least-hassle route to rapid code improvement and effective debugging. Removing waste Good programmers know what to write. Great ones know what to rewrite (and reuse). Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 36. Free Software Lessons vs. Lean principles : similar culture Value Every good work of software starts by scratching a developer’s personal itch. Customer first Treating your users as co-developers is your least-hassle route to rapid code improvement and effective debugging. Removing waste Good programmers know what to write. Great ones know what to rewrite (and reuse). Perfection, well. . . fix it fast Release early, release often. Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow. Lessons from E. S. Raymond’s “The Cathedral and the Bazaar”, Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 37. Some figures Evolution of file number in the Linux kernel (G. Robles) Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 38. The change Free Software lessons were easy to follow 10 years ago : developer and users would often coincide (developers are also the users !) . . . Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 39. The change Free Software lessons were easy to follow 10 years ago : developer and users would often coincide (developers are also the users !) . . . Joke would our offices be somehow better if the architects were forced to actually use them ? Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 40. The change Free Software lessons were easy to follow 10 years ago : developer and users would often coincide (developers are also the users !) . . . Joke would our offices be somehow better if the architects were forced to actually use them ? Things are changing today : user and developer communities are growing steadily ! Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 41. The change Free Software lessons were easy to follow 10 years ago : developer and users would often coincide (developers are also the users !) . . . Joke would our offices be somehow better if the architects were forced to actually use them ? Things are changing today : user and developer communities are growing steadily ! Can we scale up ? Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 42. The challenge science : develop theory and tools to allow Free Software collaborative development to scale up education : train tomorrow’s engineers economy : explain and set up the ecosystems. . . Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 43. Focus on science Free Software is making software artefacts transparent : no artificial barriers among architectural layers. . . Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 44. Focus on science Free Software is making software artefacts transparent : no artificial barriers among architectural layers. . . theoretical possibility to follow the flow of computation from the more abstract layers down to the moving bits in the hardware Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 45. Focus on science Free Software is making software artefacts transparent : no artificial barriers among architectural layers. . . theoretical possibility to follow the flow of computation from the more abstract layers down to the moving bits in the hardware new levels of quality assurance and certification can be expected Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 46. Focus on science Free Software is making software artefacts transparent : no artificial barriers among architectural layers. . . theoretical possibility to follow the flow of computation from the more abstract layers down to the moving bits in the hardware new levels of quality assurance and certification can be expected we need theory and tools to make all this process lean. Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 47. Focus on science Free Software is making software artefacts transparent : no artificial barriers among architectural layers. . . theoretical possibility to follow the flow of computation from the more abstract layers down to the moving bits in the hardware new levels of quality assurance and certification can be expected we need theory and tools to make all this process lean. Industry should invest in Free Software fundamental research, as soon as possible. Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 48. Mancoosi technology preview : visualizing Systems of Systems GNU/Linux software distributions : probably the most complex system of systems on the planet Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 49. Mancoosi technology preview : visualizing Systems of Systems GNU/Linux software distributions : probably the most complex system of systems on the planet HOW can you visualize such a system of systems ? Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 50. Draw a graph, no deep knowledge kde-amusements and kde-toys in Debian 3.1 (aka sarge, 2005) were unnecessary components, overlapping kde-games and kde-edu. Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 51. Draw a graph, no deep knowledge kde-amusements and kde-toys in Debian 3.1 (aka sarge, 2005) were unnecessary components, overlapping kde-games and kde-edu.They are waste, and are gone today (2009). Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 52. Draw a graph, no deep knowledge kde-amusements and kde-toys in Debian 3.1 (aka sarge, 2005) were unnecessary components, overlapping kde-games and kde-edu.They are waste, and are gone today (2009). Should be easy to spot, only 244 components are concerned ! Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 53. Draw a graph, no deep knowledge kde-amusements and kde-toys in Debian 3.1 (aka sarge, 2005) were unnecessary components, overlapping kde-games and kde-edu.They are waste, and are gone today (2009). Should be easy to spot, only 244 components are concerned ! Can you see this fact here ? Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 54. Let’s try a more systemic approach Here is a graph of strong dominators for the KDE subsystem : Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 55. Let’s try a more systemic approach Here is a graph of strong dominators for the KDE subsystem : See the problem, now ? More on this at http://www.mancoosi.org Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead
  • 56. Let me say this again. . . We need to invest in Free Software fundamental research, as soon as possible. Roberto Di Cosmo Lean principles, Open Source, and the road ahead

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