Lean, Agile,
and the Human Condition




                          1
                          1
How Well Do Various Software
Development Approaches Work?
• There have been many improvements to software development

• E...
S/W Productivity (%)

160                                             149
140                                       125
  ...
S/W Productivity (%)

450
                                                      400
400
350
300
250
200
                  ...
S/W Quality (%)

160
                            144
                                              138
140                ...
S/W Quality (%)

1200
                                                     1000
1000

800

600

400

                     ...
Productivity WITH Quality (%)

4500
                                                                  4000
4000
3500
3000
...
Lean and Agile are by far the two
most effective software approaches


              Why?




                            ...
Lean Production


• Term coined by Womack et al in quot;The Machine That
  Changed The Worldquot; (1990)

• Subset of the ...
W. Edwards Deming (1900 – 1993)
•   Everything is a system
•   Put people first
•   Master of quality, management, and mar...
quot;Deming-ismsquot;

   ―There are many more things that must be managed than can be measured.
     The inability to mea...
“Profound Knowledge”
 ―…for transformation from the present style of Western
 management to one of optimization.‖
        ...
What Is A quot;System?quot; (Deming view)
―A system is a set of inter-connected elements or parts that integrate the
thoug...
System-Thinking: The Key to Big Gains
―The nub of 'system thinking' is that the big gains come from
improving the way the ...
Tools Without A System View Are Ineffective

―These days you can see Shewhart control charts in many manufacturing
operati...
The Goal: Stable, Sustainable Systems


A sustainable system:

a) knows its purpose, [Appreciation For A System]

b) const...
All Four Facets of PK Are Essential



  ―The various segments of the system of
  profound knowledge proposed here can not...
PK: The Cure For Sub-Optimization




―Without Profound Knowledge we end up optimizing one part of the system, but
lose ou...
What Is Lean?
 Lean is the application of Profound Knowledge to the system
 of business, including both product developmen...
The Principles of Lean
   • Value: what do the stakeholders need?

   • Value Stream: minimize entropy of design

   • Flo...
Not All quot;Leanquot; Is Lean


   Much of modern quot;Leanquot; takes pieces of
   Deming's work and implements it witho...
What Is Agile?
 Agile software development is a group of software
 development methodologies that are based on similar
 pr...
Agile Principles (Agile Manifesto)
• Satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable
  software.

•...
Agile Principles (Continued)
• Working software is the primary measure of progress.

• Agile processes promote sustainable...
Lean/Agile Commonalities
• Principles-based
• Aligning to customer needs (quot;valuesquot;)
   – Involving all stakeholder...
Lean/Agile Differences

 • Optimization

 • Level of Focus

 • Verification/Validation

 • Variation

 • Prediction



   ...
Optimization
• Lean: You must actively build up Profound Knowledge
  to obtain an optimized system
   ―It takes knowledge ...
Level of Focus
 • Lean: Enterprise. System of Systems

      quot;The aim, the values and beliefs of the
      organizatio...
Verification/Validation

• Lean: Do it right the first time AND evolve
   – Identify and eliminate classes of defects up f...
Variation
 • Lean: Treat business as a process and identify
   common (quot;naturalquot;) and special (quot;unnaturalquot;...
Prediction
 • Lean: Predict, systematically and by hypothesis
   ―Management is prediction‖ - W. Edwards Deming

  ―Write ...
Lean/Agile Comparison
 • Agile: Effective. Simpler, less change to implement, less
   powerful. System-level. Great human ...
“Get Prepared” vs. “Get Started”

                           Agile (Get Started)
 Lean (Get Prepared)

      George S. Pat...
Lean, Agile, and the Human Condition:
quot;Put People Firstquot;

 • People in general, customers in particular.
   (Put t...
Lean, Agile, and the Human Condition:
quot;Listen, Alwaysquot;
 • Be interested rather than trying to be interesting
    –...
Lean, Agile, and the Human Condition:
quot;Set A Worthy Vision and Goalsquot;
• Something you love, and that, if others ar...
Lean, Agile, and the Human Condition:
quot;Strategizequot;
• It’s the rebels who truly make a difference
    – treat all n...
Lean, Agile, and the Human Condition:
quot;Actquot;
• Be a doer, not just a talker [Agile!]
   – Ideas don’t accomplish an...
Lean, Agile, and the Human Condition:
quot;Measure Your Resultsquot;


• Based on accomplishment, not on time spent at job...
Redux
 • Lean and Agile are the two most-effective
   software development approaches ever
 • Lean (not quot;Leanquot;) is...
If you're interested in learning more
about lean software development…




              (Google “Crosstalk Lean Software”...
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Lean, Agile and the Human Condition (Jim Sutton)

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In this series of talks, our panel of experts present real world examples that illustrate how Lean Production concepts are being successfully applied to software development. In particular to applications that have to meet the highest levels of safety and security.

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  • Much better explanation on Variation.
    People has confusing approches to this.
    Lack of Industrial Engineering knowledge.
    It's better explained here.
    Actualy, a Black T model Ford does not Variate, is it right ? Is this the Go?
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Lean, Agile and the Human Condition (Jim Sutton)

  1. 1. Lean, Agile, and the Human Condition 1 1
  2. 2. How Well Do Various Software Development Approaches Work? • There have been many improvements to software development • Everybody makes claims for their approach • To compare them you must have a common measuring stick – Productivity, relative to structured programming – Quality, relative to structured programming • With those results you can know which approaches work best 2 2
  3. 3. S/W Productivity (%) 160 149 140 125 115 120 105 100 100 93 100 75 80 60 40 20 0 3
  4. 4. S/W Productivity (%) 450 400 400 350 300 250 200 149 150 125 115 100 100 93 105 100 75 50 0 4
  5. 5. S/W Quality (%) 160 144 138 140 130 125 120 100 100 100 93 80 60 40 20 20 0 5
  6. 6. S/W Quality (%) 1200 1000 1000 800 600 400 144 200 138 130 125 100 100 93 20 0 6
  7. 7. Productivity WITH Quality (%) 4500 4000 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 205.62 500 156.25 151.2 149.5 100 100 86.49 15 0 7
  8. 8. Lean and Agile are by far the two most effective software approaches Why? 8
  9. 9. Lean Production • Term coined by Womack et al in quot;The Machine That Changed The Worldquot; (1990) • Subset of the quot;Toyota Production Systemquot; (TPS) • TPS is based on teachings of W. Edwards Deming 9
  10. 10. W. Edwards Deming (1900 – 1993) • Everything is a system • Put people first • Master of quality, management, and marketing theories • American WWII industrial success credited to his quality approach “Every day I think about what he meant to us. Deming is the core of our management.” Dr. Shoichiro Toyoda, Toyota Chairman and President 1982-1999 ―Now more than ever, we need to remember the teachings of Dr. Deming‖ Dr. Shoichiro Toyoda 10
  11. 11. quot;Deming-ismsquot; ―There are many more things that must be managed than can be measured. The inability to measure does not relieve us of the obligation to manage.quot; ―Management Activities/Interventions will not improve unstable systems‖ ―We are going to learn about the prevailing system of management. How to take joy out of life.‖ ―It takes more than engineering knowledge to design…it takes Profound Knowledge‖ ―Those who only give us best efforts—let them stay home. Without the benefit of Profound Knowledge they are counter-productive.‖ 11
  12. 12. “Profound Knowledge” ―…for transformation from the present style of Western management to one of optimization.‖ Deming, ―Out Of The Crisis‖ Facets: 1) ―Appreciation for a system‖ (cooperation) 2) ―Knowledge about variation‖ (problem recognition) 3) ―Theory of knowledge‖ (predictive problem solving) 4) ―Psychology‖ (aligning work on human nature) ―The System of Profound Knowledge is a paradigm shift. It’s not like ―One- Minute Manager‖ or ―Good to Great‖ where you can just pick up an isolated idea and run with it. You need to understand the whole system, and then do all of it. That’s what makes winning the Deming Prize so impressive: It takes five years, and must be top-down from senior management.‖ Richard Zultner, Deming assistant from 1985 to 1993 12
  13. 13. What Is A quot;System?quot; (Deming view) ―A system is a set of inter-connected elements or parts that integrate the thoughts and actions of people [to] achieve a collectively agreed-upon purpose.‖ David Cochran ―Collective System Design: Designing Sustainable Systems‖ ―Every organization is a system that takes inputs from suppliers and transforms them using processes.‖ Steve Horn ―Deming's System of Profound Knowledge‖ ―The East is learning scientific thinking faster than the West is learning systems thinking.‖ Dr. Russell Ackoff Professor Emeritus, Management Science, Wharton School 13
  14. 14. System-Thinking: The Key to Big Gains ―The nub of 'system thinking' is that the big gains come from improving the way the system works and increasing co-operation between departments. There is relatively little to be gained by motivating people to just work a bit harder and make fewer mistakes.‖ Steve Horn ―Deming's System of Profound Knowledge‖ Autonomous actors Interdependent actors 14
  15. 15. Tools Without A System View Are Ineffective ―These days you can see Shewhart control charts in many manufacturing operations in Europe and America. But most of these companies get very little benefit from the charts because they do not know how to act as part of a system.‖ Steve Horn Ibid. (chart from www.asq.org) 15
  16. 16. The Goal: Stable, Sustainable Systems A sustainable system: a) knows its purpose, [Appreciation For A System] b) constantly seeks to achieve its purpose, [Knowledge About Variation] c) adapts quickly when [its] purpose is not being met. [Theory of Knowledge] David Cochran ―Collective System Design: Designing Sustainable Systems‖ 16
  17. 17. All Four Facets of PK Are Essential ―The various segments of the system of profound knowledge proposed here can not be separated. They interact with each other.‖ Deming ―The New Economics‖ 17
  18. 18. PK: The Cure For Sub-Optimization ―Without Profound Knowledge we end up optimizing one part of the system, but lose out elsewhere. One area may be greatly improved, but this can cause two others to decline. WIthout Profound Knowledge a manager would never know‖ Deming, in ―Four Days with Dr. Deming‖ 18
  19. 19. What Is Lean? Lean is the application of Profound Knowledge to the system of business, including both product development and production, to yield results optimized for the greatest benefit of everyone involved: producers, customers, and society. Lean has ethics at its heart: - It seeks win/win outcomes for human beings - It is more effective at generating wealth than the prior systems it replaced - It incorporates other kinds of needs than wealth Lean is: • A philosophy of work AND • A map for implementation 19
  20. 20. The Principles of Lean • Value: what do the stakeholders need? • Value Stream: minimize entropy of design • Flow: remove whitespace and backflows • Pull: work only based on customer need • Perfection: right from the start, or fix fast These allow us to learn lessons from other industries 20
  21. 21. Not All quot;Leanquot; Is Lean Much of modern quot;Leanquot; takes pieces of Deming's work and implements it without changing the system; e.g., quot;Six Sigma,quot; quot;kanbanquot; software processes,… This is ―Lean,‖ not Lean 21
  22. 22. What Is Agile? Agile software development is a group of software development methodologies that are based on similar principles. Agile methodologies generally promote a project management process that encourages frequent inspection and adaptation, a leadership philosophy that encourages teamwork, self-organization and accountability, a set of engineering best practices that allow for rapid delivery of high-quality software, and a business approach that aligns development with customer needs and company goals. Wikipedia ―Agile software development‖ 22
  23. 23. Agile Principles (Agile Manifesto) • Satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. • Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. • Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. • Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. • Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. • The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. 23
  24. 24. Agile Principles (Continued) • Working software is the primary measure of progress. • Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. • Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. • Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. • The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self- organizing teams. • At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly. 24
  25. 25. Lean/Agile Commonalities • Principles-based • Aligning to customer needs (quot;valuesquot;) – Involving all stakeholders – Regular, timely delivery of product • Effectiveness – Cyclical, adaptive, learning, continuous improvement – Technical excellence – Encouraging teamwork – Sustainable • quot;Human-friendlyquot; 25
  26. 26. Lean/Agile Differences • Optimization • Level of Focus • Verification/Validation • Variation • Prediction 26
  27. 27. Optimization • Lean: You must actively build up Profound Knowledge to obtain an optimized system ―It takes knowledge to optimize. Without Profound Knowledge we end up optimizing one part of the system, but lose out elsewhere in the system.‖ Domain Design Deming Change-Driven Design • Agile: Optimization will happen naturally, through Emergent Behavior ―Instead of committing to market a piece of software that hasn’t even been written yet, agile empowers teams to Refactoring optimize their release as it’s developed‖ agilemethodology.org 27
  28. 28. Level of Focus • Lean: Enterprise. System of Systems quot;The aim, the values and beliefs of the organization, as set forth by top management, are important. Without Hoshin Kanri an aim, there is no system. The QFD performance of any component is to be judged in terms of its contribution to the aim of the system.quot; Deming • Agile: Project. System. Extreme Modeling Scrum Teams Scrum of Scrums Business participation 28
  29. 29. Verification/Validation • Lean: Do it right the first time AND evolve – Identify and eliminate classes of defects up front – Minimize testing and inspection (use sampling) • Corresponds to auto manufacture Poka Yoke • Corresponds to chip manufacture Jidoka Autonomation Cleanroom Formal methods • Agile: Evolve-to-right – Tests are the starting point, later run them all Test-driven development Refactoring 29
  30. 30. Variation • Lean: Treat business as a process and identify common (quot;naturalquot;) and special (quot;unnaturalquot;) causes of variation quot;It is the manager's job to know the difference [between common and special variation]. Without this basic knowledge, any management action will be merely tampering. Managers working hard, yet making Control Chart things worse.quot; Deming • Agile: No concept for different causes of variation. 30
  31. 31. Prediction • Lean: Predict, systematically and by hypothesis ―Management is prediction‖ - W. Edwards Deming ―Write down the key outcome that is desired. Then list the main drivers that impact that outcome. Then list PDSA design changes for each outcome to be tested with TRIZ the PDSA cycle. When PDSA does not involve…a Change-Driven Design theory it becomes really just trial and error (try one thing then another then another).‖ Tom Nolan • Agile: The future is unknowable. Do what you can with what you know now, and evolve as you learn Emergent Behavior ―Much of what is ―known‖ is not so.‖ Short development cycles Customer involvement John Hunter Management Consultant 31
  32. 32. Lean/Agile Comparison • Agile: Effective. Simpler, less change to implement, less powerful. System-level. Great human values • Lean: Effective. Harder, more change required, more powerful. System and SoS-level. Great human values ―Agile is a really elegant solution for many organizations. It is local and team- focused. It is based on a number of simplifying assumptions, and is therefore easy to implement…much more so than Lean. In my talks with Agile advocates, they agree that each of the Lean tools is more powerful than its corresponding Agile tool. It also usually leads to sub-optimized solutions, which are difficult to recover from. However, difficulty in working effectively with Lean tools can make Agile the best solution for a group.‖ Richard Zultner Deming Assistant 1985-1993 32
  33. 33. “Get Prepared” vs. “Get Started” Agile (Get Started) Lean (Get Prepared) George S. Patton Francis Ford Coppolla and George Lucas Ralph Waldo Emerson School teachers at the airport Abraham Lincoln 33
  34. 34. Lean, Agile, and the Human Condition: quot;Put People Firstquot; • People in general, customers in particular. (Put the interests of others above your own) • Be unflinchingly honest in your dealings. People notice, and remember. • Contribute to society, not just to self • Take some “beach time” for yourself each day (and also dedicated time for your spouse) • Do business “by handshake”: if the other isn’t honest, no contract will make him act so • Accept human “messiness”; don’t dehumanize the workplace 34
  35. 35. Lean, Agile, and the Human Condition: quot;Listen, Alwaysquot; • Be interested rather than trying to be interesting – come at any situation with an interested and curious mind -- life becomes much more interesting for everyone around you too – “Be interested in the people you meet -- their lives, their history, their story. Where are they from? How did they get here? What have they learned? put yourself into their frame of reference • Listen to your quot;gutquot;…even if it contradicts those around you (don’t just automatically accept it though) 35
  36. 36. Lean, Agile, and the Human Condition: quot;Set A Worthy Vision and Goalsquot; • Something you love, and that, if others are involved, at least has elements they will love too • A cause inspiring loyalty amongst your team • Always serving others (must primarily benefit them) • Consider timing when picking goals (observe trends up to the present, and extrapolate) • Give people something of lasting value to them • Fill a real void: Find everyday problems that nag at everyday people – Identify the customer’s actual needs, not what you or they assume they need – No shortcuts in what you offer them or how 36
  37. 37. Lean, Agile, and the Human Condition: quot;Strategizequot; • It’s the rebels who truly make a difference – treat all non-absolutes as hypotheses to be disproven – Do not look to competitors to emulate them – Study competitors to identify the holes in what they offer • Conventional wisdom is always wrong • Involve others – Share the pie (makes a bigger pie for everyone) – Surround yourself with smarter people and guide them – be merciful to people’s failures; give “second chances” (but speak the “truth in love”) – Build loyalty between the team members • Anticipate what can go wrong, and head it off 37
  38. 38. Lean, Agile, and the Human Condition: quot;Actquot; • Be a doer, not just a talker [Agile!] – Ideas don’t accomplish anything: results-oriented initiatives and strategies do. No results? Change your initiatives and strategies! – Many see needs and sit around waiting: Be the one who acts on it • Don’t link your doing too tightly to your being compensated – Work hard, with high standards: it opens doors – Communicate sufficiently but without excess, and always personally (speak above write; no emails) [Agile!] • Do whatever it takes to please the customer • Treat everyone with respect and honesty • Win/win only – In every deal, everyone walks away from the table feeling good – Never pretend to be someone else • Continually renew innovation 38
  39. 39. Lean, Agile, and the Human Condition: quot;Measure Your Resultsquot; • Based on accomplishment, not on time spent at job • Choose your metrics based on your goals, not aimlessly or based on tradition • Document what you learn from it 39
  40. 40. Redux • Lean and Agile are the two most-effective software development approaches ever • Lean (not quot;Leanquot;) is based on W. Edwards Deming • Deming emphasized cooperation, problem recognition, prediction, and people orientation • Agile is principled, simplified, and also people oriented • Great combination is Lean (quot;prepare and predictquot;) with Agile (quot;get going and improvequot;) 40
  41. 41. If you're interested in learning more about lean software development… (Google “Crosstalk Lean Software”) 41
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