Questions for Lesson About Bacteria1. What is a bacterium?2. What are the different types of bacteria?3. How does bacterial cell differ from plant and animal cell?4. What are the three kinds of bacteria according to the mode of respiration? Give an example of each kind.5. How do autotrophic bacteria make food?6. Where do bacteria use their endospore?7. What are the three roles of bacteria?
Questions for Lesson About Fungi1. How do fungi differ from plants?2. What is the main component of a fungus cell wall?3. Give examples of fungi.4. What is the spore-producing structure of a fungus?5. Write the chemical equation for alcoholic fermentation.6. What kind of asexual reproduction is performed by unicellular fungi?7. What are the three roles of fungi?
Kingdom Eubacteria (True Bacteria) Bacteria are located everywhere - air, water, land, and living organisms including people.General Characteristics: 1. All are unicellular (one-celled structural level) 2. All are prokaryotic – cells that lack nucleus (no nuclear envelope) (PRO = NO nucleus) 3. All have cell walls – NO cellulose in cell walls 4. They can live in both aerobic (with O2) and anaerobic (without O2) environments
Seven Major Structures of a Bacterial Cell•Capsule•Cell wall•Ribosomes•Nucleoid•Flagella•Pilli•Cytoplasm
Reproduction of Bacteria•Binary Fission - the process of one organismdividing into two organisms•Fission is a type of asexual reproduction•Asexual Reproduction - reproduction of a livingthing from only one parent How?... The one main (circular) chromosome makes a copy of itself then it divides into two.
Bacteria SurvivalEndospore•A thick-celled structure that forms inside the cell•They are the major cause of food poisoning•It allows the bacterium to survive for manyyears•They can withstand boiling, freezing, andextremely dry conditions•It encloses all the nuclear materials andsome cytoplasm
Harmful Bacteria• Some bacteria cause diseases•Animals can pass diseases to humansCommunicable Disease- Disease that is passed from one organism to anotherThis can happen in several ways:•Air•Touching clothing, food, silverware, ortoothbrush•Drinking water that contains bacteria
Helpful Bacteria•Decomposers help recycle nutrients into the soilfor other organisms to grow•Bacteria grow in the stomach of a cow to breakdown grass and hay•Most are used to make antibiotics•Some bacteria help make insulin•They are used to make industrial chemicals
Helpful Bacteria•Used to treat sewage Organic waste is consumed by the bacteria, used as nutrients by the bacteria, and is no longer present to produce odors, sludge, pollution, or unsightly mess.•Foods like yogurt, cottage & Swiss cheese, sour cream, buttermilk aremade from bacteria that grows in milk
Characteristics of Fungi• Eukaryotic (with membrane-bound organelles)• Non-photosynthetic – unlike plants• Most are multicellular• Most are microscopic molds or yeastsThe study of fungi is known as MYCOLOGY.
Structure of a FungiSpore-producingstructure of fungi
Reproduction in Fungi• Most fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually• Asexual reproduction – production of various types of spores
Roles of Fungi• Disease-causing agentsATHLETE’S FOOT
Fungi decompose dead plant and animal matter.•Called saprophytes, they act as recyclers of dead organic matter, obtaining food from this material.
Fungi in Industry (Biotechnology)• Fungi produce many products used in the medical field such as penicillin, cephalosporin antibiotics, cortisone• Yeast is used to make ethanol.• Yeasts are known for making breads rise.