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World Food Day2012: KS3                                          Pupils at Langobaya school                               ...
ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 2
Maize is the most widely grown staple crop in      Africa – more than 300 million Africans depend              on it as th...
Why has this maize crop dried up?                               Can you think of three reasons?The Yaa familys failed maiz...
Mariam Yaa, 10, collects water and tends the          Mariam Yaa, 10, at her homestead infamily’s goats in Langobaya, Keny...
The Yaa family’smaize crop has faileddue to recurrentdrought.As a result, the familyhave only 5kg ofbeans and 5kg of ricet...
Consequences wheel              What are the  No          consequenceswater          of drought?supply                    ...
ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 8
Flash floods used to happen here every four to six     years. However, due to deforestation and climateMukta and her frien...
“I feel afraid. When the floods come, our houses fall – everything collapses. Strongfloods suddenly rush down the mountain...
“Father sowed the fields and mother and I helped with the weeding. After the paddy grew, wedried the crops under the sun a...
ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 12
Reuben Chidimba with a baby goat         Reuben plays with his village friends.                                         PH...
Thabu Chidimba, a smallholder farmer, in thefields she shares with other local women.PHOTO: GRAEME WILLIAMS/PANOS/ACTIONAI...
Describe what you see in this picture. Do you think itwould be easy or difficult to grow food in this area?               ...
What links all these pictures together?Lina Gondwe helps sproutingmaize plants to grow.PHOTO: GRAEME WILLIAMS/PANOS/ACTION...
Thabu and other women farmers on their irrigatedland, Rumphi District, MalawiPHOTO: GRAEME WILLIAMS/PANOS/ACTIONAID       ...
Key question: why do one in six            people go hungry?The way we are producing              We need to redesign the ...
Zone of relevance                     Why do one in                     six people go                        hungry?      ...
• Investigate one of the questions above.• Present your findings to the class in a creative way.                          ...
Further information sources/ interesting articlesHunger http://www.wfp.org/hunger/faqsThe last thing our hungry world need...
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World Food Day 2012 KS3

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To mark this year's World Food Day on the 16th October ActionAid has put together teaching resources to help learners explore the question of whether there is there enough food for everyone.

This PowerPoint asks: Why are one billion people going hungry? Are we eating too much meat? What is sustainable farming? Learners will debate some ‘big questions’ about food and find out how young people in other countries are coping with challenges like drought, floods and food shortages.

Suggested for KS3 citizenship and geography. Each slide has corresponding teacher notes

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  • World Food Day: October 16 2012Objectives:Tofind out how young people in LEDCs are coping with challenges like drought, floods and food shortagesTo investigate and debate some of the reasons why one in six people do not get enough food to eatTo explore sustainable farming methods.CitizenshipKS32.1 Critical thinking and enquiry2.2 Advocacy and representationGeography KS31.1 a. Understanding the physical and human characteristics of real places1.4 a. Exploring the social, economic, environmental and political connections between places. 1.5 a. Understanding how sequences of events and activities in the physical and human worlds lead to change in places, landscapes and societies1.6 b. Exploring sustainable development and its impact on environmental interaction and climate change
  • Think: why do you think one in six people do not get enough food to eat? Pair: give learners two minutes to discuss the question with a partner and write a list of all their answers. Share: spend a few minutes sharing answers. Group answers together to create a class list. Explain that in the following slides, we will investigate the reasons why one billion people go hungry each day. We will then return to our class list and see if there is anything we would like to add or change.
  • Maize is grown across the world on many small family farms. You may have eaten sweet corn, which is a type of maize. Maize can also be turned into flour and used to make things you may have tried, like tortillas!In the picture on the left, you can see Thikhala Chilembwe, aged 14, at his community’s maize store in Lilongwe, Malawi.In the picture on the right, you can see farmer Margret David from Mwanza, Malawi, with her healthy maize crop.
  • In this picture you can see a failed maize crop. The crop was grown by the Yaa family who live in Langobaya, Kenya (The picture is also featured in the poster ‘Mariam’s story: drought in Kenya’).The maize crop has failed because: There has been a prolonged drought in this area. This means that there has been no rain for a long period. Without rain, crops cannot grow.Other reasons could include: Poor quality soil without the right nutrients to grow crops. No manure or compost to spread on the soil to give crops the right nutrients. The maize is diseased.
  • This is Mariam. She lives a coastal area of Kenya called Langobaya. On an average day, she looks after the family’s animals, walks a long way to collect water and still finds the time to go to school! The family have a small farm. They keep goats and grow food crops such as maize and beans.Maize is known as the ‘staple’ of the Kenyan diet. This means that is eaten regularly by people all across the country. Did you know? Each year, the average Kenyan consumes 98 kilograms of maize! At the same time, maize prices in Kenya are among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa The poorest quarter of the population spends 28% of its income on maize.Source: Sept 17 2012, http://kenya.usaid.gov/programs/economic-growth/490
  • Drought and hungerHere is Mariam with her family. In front of them are two bowls containing all the food they have for the next three weeks: the smaller bowl contains rice; the larger bowl contains beans. Like many Kenyans their staple diet is maize. However, as you can see the family have no maize at the moment. In 2011 Kenya had one of its driest years since 1950. Maize crops perished which had a devastating effect on farming families like Mariam’s, and also caused the price of maize to rise. Drought and climate changeDroughts in Kenya are becoming more frequent and more severe as a result of increasing global temperatures.
  • Consider the question: ‘What might be the consequences of drought for Mariam’s family?’ Ask pupils to draw a consequences wheel. Write direct consequences in the circle linked to the main circle. Then second order consequences in the next circle, then third order consequences linked to these, if necessary. Create as many circles as you like. Consequences could include:Having no source of water nearby to water crops Crops like maize not growing properly A poor maize harvest Insufficient crops to store and eat after harvest time Immediate hunger No surplus crops to sell after harvest time Increase in local food prices due to decreased harvest No income to buy food No money to buy seeds to plant Prolonged hunger Malnutrition
  • Picture 1In this picture you can see Mukta (second on left) with her friends. Mukta is nine and lives near the Himalayan border hills in Bangladesh, South East Asia. Picture 2: what do you notice about the landscape in this area? The vast flat plain area of Telia Notunpara lies at the bottom of the Himalayan border hills and is where Mukta and her family live. A plain is a broad area of flat land. Plains are often prone to flooding. As only rice has been traditionally cultivated here, the arrival of flash flooding before harvesting can wipe out the community’s food supply, resulting in widespread hunger and malnutrition. Flash floods happen fast and can be caused by heavy rainfall. Sometimes the flood arrives in the form or a wall or wave of water. Because water runs downhill, it collects in low-lying areas. If the rain doesn’t stop the water level will keep rising. This type of flooding used to take place every four to six years. However, due to the large-scale deforestation of the Himalayan border hills and climate change, over the last 10 years it has flooded eight times. Did you know?75% of Bangladesh is less than 10m above sea level and 80% is flood plain. Scientists predict that 17.5% of Bangladesh will disappear under the sea by 2100 if sea levels rise by one metre as a result of climate change.
  • Natural disasters like floods or cyclones have a much bigger impact in countries like Bangladesh where people do not have as many resources to protect themselves. In 2007, around 30 million people in south Asia lost their homes and livelihoods after the worst floods for 30 years. Floods have a huge impact on people’s ability to grow and store food. Here are some of the consequences of flash floods for Mukta’s family: Flash flooding ruins the rice crops and vegetables Seeds which have been stored are washed away The family have a poor rice harvest There is no rice to store after harvest time There are no seeds to plant for the following year The family cannot earn money from selling rice after harvest time The family have no money to buy food
  • Preparing for disasters is key to survival in Mukta’s community. The community have worked together to build embankments near the village to defend their homes against the floodwaters. ActionAid also supported the community to create a seed bank. Farming families can ‘borrow’ rice seeds to cultivate and then repay double the amount of seeds after harvesting so that they can be used by other farmers. This means that they no longer have to buy rice seeds and can keep growing enough rice to sell and feed their families.
  • This is Reuben. He lives in the north of Malawi in East Africa.His mother has a small family farm. She shares a small plot of land with 30 other women in her village and grows mainly tomatoes and maize. Reuben helps by looking after the family’s goats!
  • Reuben’s mother is a farmer. Her name is Thabu Chidimba. Farming is very difficult in this area of Malawi because the soil is infertile and the rains are infrequent. However, Thabu and other women from her village have been trying out new methods of sustainable farming. These include composting, building irrigation channels in the fields and pumping water from the nearby river.
  • This picture shows severe soil erosion in Rumphi district, Malawi, near to Reuben’s home. Soil erosion happens when soil is blown away by the wind or washed away by the rain. Soil erosion is common in areas with steep slopes, where trees have been cut down or duringdroughts when crops grow poorly. Soil erosion makes growing crops difficult, because the soil has lost all its nutrients. Soil erosion is a serious problem facing farmers in Malawi.
  • Links between the three picturesIn the first picture you can see Lina placing compost on sprouting maize plants. This adds nutrients to the soil and helps the plants to grow. In the second picture you can see several compost heaps made by the women farmers of Rumphi district. These have been created from a mix of animal and food waste. In the third picture you can see the contrast between maize grown on compost-fed soil in the background and maize grown without compostin the foreground.
  • Thabu and the other women farmers from her village irrigate their fields. This is achieved by digging small channels and then pumping in water from the nearby river.
  • Zone of relevance debate:ask pupils to draw a zone of relevance chart in their books (example on the following slide). Debate the key question: why do one in six people go hungry? Use the answers above as a starting point. Pupils decide which answers are most relevant, relevant or irrelevant to the key question and place them in the appropriate place on their zone of relevance chart. Then ask pupils to add their own -they could also return to their answers from slide two. Pupils feedback as a class on their decisions, comparing and justifying their choices.
  • Zone of relevance :ask pupils to draw a zone of relevance chart in their books (example above). Debate the key question: why do one in six people go hungry? Use the answers on the previous slide as a starting point. Pupils decide which answers are most relevant, relevant or irrelevant to the key question and place them in the appropriate place on their zone of relevance chart. Then ask pupils to add their own -they could also return to their answers from slide two. Pupils feedback as a class on their decisions, comparing and justifying their choices.
  • The further information links on the following slide which might be a useful starting point for pupils’ research.
  • Transcript of "World Food Day 2012 KS3"

    1. 1. World Food Day2012: KS3 Pupils at Langobaya school Kenya, collect their free school lunch. ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 1ActionAid schools | September 2012 PHOTO: SØREN BJERREGAARD/ACTIONAID
    2. 2. ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 2
    3. 3. Maize is the most widely grown staple crop in Africa – more than 300 million Africans depend on it as their main food source.Thikhala Chilembwe, 14, from Malawi. Margret David harvests a healthy cropPHOTO: CAMERON MCNEE/MISSIONMALAWI//ACTIONAID from her garden in Malawi. PHOTO: ACTIONAID ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 3
    4. 4. Why has this maize crop dried up? Can you think of three reasons?The Yaa familys failed maize crop inLangobaya, Kenya.PHOTO: DES WILLIE/ACTIONAID ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 4
    5. 5. Mariam Yaa, 10, collects water and tends the Mariam Yaa, 10, at her homestead infamily’s goats in Langobaya, Kenya. Langobaya, Kenya.PHOTO: DES WILLIE/ACTIONAID PHOTO: DES WILLIE/ACTIONAID ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 5
    6. 6. The Yaa family’smaize crop has faileddue to recurrentdrought.As a result, the familyhave only 5kg ofbeans and 5kg of riceto eat for the nextthree weeks. Karisa, Mariam and Karembo Yaa at home in Langobaya, Kenya. PHOTO: DES WILLIE/ACTIONAID ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 6
    7. 7. Consequences wheel What are the No consequenceswater of drought?supply ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 7
    8. 8. ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 8
    9. 9. Flash floods used to happen here every four to six years. However, due to deforestation and climateMukta and her friends in their home villagebeen floods here for eight out of change, there have Mukta’s mother, Shofikun, plants rice with thein Sunamganj district, Bangladesh.TOM PIETRASIK/ACTIONAID the last 10 years. community in Char Harikesh, Bangladesh. PHOTO: NICOLAS AXELROD/ACTIONAID ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 9
    10. 10. “I feel afraid. When the floods come, our houses fall – everything collapses. Strongfloods suddenly rush down the mountains and we run to the school building to takeshelter. We don’t have enough food. You get pains in your stomach if you can’t eat.” Mukta and her mother Shofikun. PHOTO: NICOLAS AXELROD/ACTIONAID ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 10
    11. 11. “Father sowed the fields and mother and I helped with the weeding. After the paddy grew, wedried the crops under the sun and then sold some, but kept half for ourselves. Before, we went hungry and earning money was difficult, but now I like the harvesting season.” Mukta and her mother Shofikun. Mukta in the familys vegetable garden. PHOTO: NICOLAS AXELROD/ACTIONAID PHOTO: NICOLAS AXELROD/ACTIONAID ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 11
    12. 12. ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 12
    13. 13. Reuben Chidimba with a baby goat Reuben plays with his village friends. PHOTO: GRAEME WILLIAMS/PANOS/ACTIONAIDat home in Rumphi district, Malawi.PHOTO: GRAEME WILLIAMS/PANOS/ACTIONAID ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 13
    14. 14. Thabu Chidimba, a smallholder farmer, in thefields she shares with other local women.PHOTO: GRAEME WILLIAMS/PANOS/ACTIONAID ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 14
    15. 15. Describe what you see in this picture. Do you think itwould be easy or difficult to grow food in this area? Typical landscape in Rumphi district, Malawi. PHOTO: GRAEME WILLIAMS/PANOS/ACTIONAID0 ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 15
    16. 16. What links all these pictures together?Lina Gondwe helps sproutingmaize plants to grow.PHOTO: GRAEME WILLIAMS/PANOS/ACTIONAIDContrasting methods of growing maize, RumphiDistrict, Malawi. Compost heaps made by womenPHOTO: GRAEME WILLIAMS/PANOS/ACTIONAID farmers in Rumphi district, Malawi. PHOTO: GRAEME WILLIAMS/PANOS/ACTIONAID ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 16
    17. 17. Thabu and other women farmers on their irrigatedland, Rumphi District, MalawiPHOTO: GRAEME WILLIAMS/PANOS/ACTIONAID ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 17
    18. 18. Key question: why do one in six people go hungry?The way we are producing We need to redesign the wholefood is unsustainable food systemGlobal food prices are rising Too much land is being used todue to extreme weather grow crops for biofuelsLamb, beef and cheese have the People living in poverty don’tlargest food footprint have money to buy foodPeople in developing countries There are too many people in theare not growing enough food world and not enough foodWe are eating too much meat We are wasting too much food Climate change is causing more extreme weather ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 18
    19. 19. Zone of relevance Why do one in six people go hungry? Most relevant points Relevant points Irrelevant points ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 19
    20. 20. • Investigate one of the questions above.• Present your findings to the class in a creative way. ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 20
    21. 21. Further information sources/ interesting articlesHunger http://www.wfp.org/hunger/faqsThe last thing our hungry world needs is more foodhttp://www.dailymail.co.uk/debate/article-1353810/Beddingtons-perfect-storm-Last-thing-hungry-world-needs-food.html#ixzz26pnCk2EKGlobal food prices rise in July due to extreme weatherhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-19193390Lamb, beef and cheese have the largest food footprinthttp://www.theecologist.org/News/news_analysis/986252/lamb_beef_and_cheese_have_largest_food_footprint.htmlMeat eaters guide to climate and healthhttp://www.ewg.org/meateatersguide/The food crisis should not be left to cowboy capitalists, JeremyGrantham, Financial Times August 14 2012, http://www.ft.comThe future of food and farming, John Beddington, Chief Scientific adviserhttp://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/foresight/docs/food-and-farming/11-547-future-of-food-and-farming-summaryWater, drought and food http://www.unwater.org/worldwaterday/faqs.html ActionAid schools | September 2012 | 21
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