International womens day 2012

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Find out the history of International Women's Day and how education helps girls and women to escape poverty. …

Find out the history of International Women's Day and how education helps girls and women to escape poverty.

Join our 'Send My Friend to School' campaign and remind world leaders of their promise to get all children into school by 2015.

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  • Aims: ·         Why we celebrate International Women’s Day ·         Understand what girls’ lives were like 100 years ago in Britain ·         Discover who the campaigners were for women’s rights ·         Explore what education was like for girls in the past ·         Understand why girls around the world are out of school today
  • The correct answer is A. International Women’s Day celebrates the achievements of women around the world and reminds us to work together to make change happen. The girls in this photograph are taking part in a peaceful rally to stand up for their right to go to school, eat healthily and see a doctor or nurse if they are ill. 2012 marks just over one hundred years since the first International Women’s Day. Let’s find out a bit more about what is was like to be a woman in Britain 100 years ago. Photo: Brian Sokol/ActionAid
  • Any ideas who this is? What do you notice about this photo? What do you think this woman is saying to her audience? Do you think the audience are agreeing or disagreeing with what the woman is saying? What was happening in 1911? This is Emmeline Pankhurst speaking in Trafalgar Square, London in 1911. She was arrested and imprisoned many times because she was a women’s rights campaigner. In 1911, women didn’t have the right to vote and had limited opportunities for work. Most men had been given the right to vote by 1900. Many women took part in protests and rallies across Europe and North America to campaign for their right to vote and to go out to work. Introducing International Women’s Day International Women's Day was marked for the first time (19 March) in 1911 in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland, where more than one million women and men attended rallies. Women demanded the right to vote and to hold public office and the right to work. During 1913-1914, International Women's Day also became a way of protesting against World War I. As part of the peace movement, Russian women took part in their first International Women’s Day on the last Sunday in February. In other parts of Europe, on or around 8 March 1915, women held rallies either to protest the war or to express solidarity with other activists. The United Nations held an International Womens’ Day in 1975 and has since celebrated International Women’s Day on 8 March. Photo: Emmeline Pankhurst addressing a crowd in Trafalgar Square by Unknown photographer, printed by Central Press vintage press print, 1908 © National Portrait Gallery
  • Who were the women who took part in protests and rallies? Who are these women? Why do you think they have been photographed like this? Many protests were organised by the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) formed in 1897 which lobbied politicians, staged demonstrations and campaigned to get the support of the public for their cause. Does anyone know what suffrage means? (The right to vote) The NUWSS was based on a network of local suffrage groups, many of which had been created since the 1860s. Women won the right to vote for the first time in general elections in 1918. Many women such as Annie Besant [click], and Elizabeth Garrett [click], had campaigned for women’s rights since the 1850s. They were mainly middle class women who could afford to spend their time campaigning and attending meetings in London. Annie Besant (1847 – 1933) Annie Besant also helped organise a strike of female workers at a match factory in east London. The women complained of starvation wages and the terrible effects on their health of fumes in the factory. The strike eventually led to their bosses improving their working situation. She also became involved in the Indian independence movement in the 1920s. Elizabeth Garrett (1836 – 1917) Elizabeth Garrett became England’s first female qualified doctor in 1865. This led to an act being passed in 1876 which allowed women to have a career in medicine. She founded the New Hospital for Women in London which is now part of University College London Hospital’s Elizabeth Garrett Wing. Photos: 'Surveillance Photograph of Militant Suffragettes‘ by Criminal Record Office, silver print mounted onto identification sheet, circa 1913 © National Portrait Gallery Annie Besant, by Hayman Seleg Mendelssohn, albumen cabinet card, mid 1880s © National Portrait Gallery Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, by Walery, published by Sampson Low & Co, carbon print on card mount, published February 1889 © National Portrait Gallery
  • National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) and the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) On the left is the symbol of a tree used by the NUWSS. On the right is a portrait badge of Emmeline Pankhurst, c.1909 - sold in large numbers by the WSPU to raise funds for its cause. Why do you think the NUWSS chose a tree to symbolise their society? The NUWSS favoured peaceful methods and recognised ‘political’ methods such as lobbying parliament and collecting signatures for petitions. The group also held public meetings and published various pamphlets, leaflets, newspapers and journals outlining the reasons and justifications for granting women the vote. The Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) was founded in 1903 by Emmeline Pankhurst who was unhappy with the methods of campaigning by the NUWSS. The WSPU preferred to raise public and media awareness of the campaign by direct action such as chaining themselves to railings, setting fire to public and private property and disrupting speeches both at public meetings and in the House of Commons. Extra Purple, Green and White Dreamt up by the WSPU in 1908, the unusual combination of colours green (hope), purple (dignity) and white (purity) was used in campaigns everywhere – on banners, pamphlets, newspapers, posters, and in clothing – scarves, ribbons, jewellery. The colours unified the movement and also emphasized the femininity of the suffragettes, who were portrayed in the press and by the government in a negative and insulting way. "Purple...stands for the royal blood that flows in the veins of every suffragette...white stands for purity in private and public life...green is the colour of hope and the emblem of spring". Emmeline Pethick Lawrence, 1908, Editor of the newspaper, Votes for Women . It is a popular myth that the colours were green, white and violet, in order to spell GWV as an acronym for 'Give Women Votes'. What types of campaigning do you think are more effective to get your message across? (Compare to the recent student protests over tuition fees) National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, © By permission of the British Library Board, 1913
  • The right to education As well as not being allowed to vote, many girls didn’t have an education in the nineteenth century. Richer girls and boys were taught by private governesses or went to private schools which were like boarding schools. They were usually taught by teachers who weren’t properly trained. One of the earliest schools where girls could study and gain qualifications was Queen’s College in Harley Street, London. It opened in 1838 to all girls above the age of 12. The school is still open today as an independent day school for girls. The college was divided into seniors and juniors and soon opened a class for younger girls. Fees were charged for each subject according to the number of weekly classes held in it. Girls were taught through lectures and essays but the teachers were all men! Two of the school’s earliest students were Frances Mary Buss [click] who opened the London Collegiate School for Girls in 1850 and became its first teacher and Dorothea Beale [click] who became head of Cheltenham Ladies College. In 1885, she founded the first training college for secondary women teachers, St Hilda's College, Cheltenham, and St Hilda's College at Oxford University. Photos: Queens’ College © Queen’s College Frances Mary Buss, by James Russell & Sons, albumen print mounted on card, circa 1875 © National Portrait Gallery Dorothea Beale, by G.H. Martyn & Sons, cabinet print © National Portrait Gallery
  • Brondesbury and Kilburn High School for Girls What do these school rules tell us about what school life was like for girls in the 1890s? How were girls expected to behave? Compare these to your school rules, are any the same or are they all different? In 1892, a teacher training college, a kindergarten and Brondesbury and Kilburn High School for Girls were housed under one roof on Salisbury Road, Brondesbury. The high school was built as a demonstration school for trainee teachers. These rules from the 1890s show how strict the schools were and how girls were expected to behave in Victorian Britain. The subjects that boys and girls were taught has changed over the years. Ask your parents and grandparents what they were taught at school. Source: School Rules at Brondesbury and Kilburn High School For Girls, c. 1892 Brent Archives, Ref:19873/3/2 Victorian Voices, National Archives, 2011
  • Education for poorer children In the first half of the nineteenth century, few children went to school. This was because their parents couldn’t afford the fees, the children were too weak or ill, or because they worked full-time to help support their families. Children who did go to school went to schools like this one, which was known as a ‘Ragged School’. Often, there were up to 60 children in one class and older children taught younger children. Why do you think these schools were known as Ragged Schools? ( Most of the children who went to these schools had only very ragged clothes to wear and they rarely had shoes.) Many people didn’t believe that everyone should have an education, but as the Industrial Revolution took place, people began to realise that children needed to be educated for work. Poorer children went to schools that were first set up by the Church, but more schools known as Ragged Schools were opened. As well as giving basic lessons like reading and writing many schools provided food. As time went on some also opened shelters where children could sleep especially in the extremely cold weather. Extra: Industrial Schools were also set up to help those children who were poor but who hadn’t as yet committed any serious crime. The idea was to remove the child from ‘bad influences’, give them an education and teach them a trade. Parents were supposed to contribute to the cost of keeping a child in an Industrial School. But this often proved impossible to collect because most of the children were homeless. The money had to be found from the government who began to take more control over education. From around 1830, national funds began to be made available for school buildings. Source: Victorian Britain: Children at School, BBC Schools
  • The school timetable Compare this school’s timetable to your own. Do you think boys and girls were taught the same subjects? What do you think girls were being educated for? What was happening in Britain in the late nineteenth century? Many schools started the day with a prayer, followed by religious instruction where pupils had to learn answers to questions from the bible by heart. Drill was like PE where children had exercises and marching to keep them fit and healthy. Dictation was writing out sentences that the teacher read out to the class. Children went home for lunch as there were no school dinners at this time. Some of the women who fought for the right to education also thought that working class girls should only be educated for married life. Girls and boys were often taught separately and in some school buildings, girls and boys were even taught on different floors with different entrances and separate playgrounds. One teacher said that, “girls seldom came to school more than 8 times a week because she had to stay at home and help on wash day.” Boys would sometimes miss one morning or afternoon a week, but more girls would miss two or three more. Girls were also given more practical skills such as cookery and laundry.
  • How have things changed in Britain? Today, all British citizens over the age of eighteen share a fundamental human right: the right to vote and to have a voice in the democratic process. But this right is only the result of a hard fought battle. The suffrage campaigners of the nineteenth and early twentieth century struggled against opposition from both parliament and the general public to eventually gain the vote for the entire British population in 1928. The girls at Avonbourne School met Bournemouth East MP Tobias Elwood to hand him a petition to take to 10 Downing Street to remind world leaders about their promises to ensure all primary school children across the world have an education by 2015. Photo: Avonborne Business and Enterprise College
  • 100 years Did you know that by 1911 in the UK, the majority of girls aged 14-18 were working in full-time employment. 35% were servants, 16% worked in the textile industry (cotton mills) and 19% in the dress trade (sewing clothes). (1911 census) Today in Britain, nearly every girl or boy up to the age of 16 is in full-time education. Photo: Langdon School Kristian Buss/ActionAid
  • Education around the world Around the world, 67 million children are out of school. More than half are girls. Only 58% of girls are in secondary education. (The biggest gap between boys and girls going to school is in sub-saharan Africa.) (UNESCO, 2007) Why do you think these children are out of school? Divya (wearing a red dress) is from Bangalore, southern India. She collects scrap metal from a slag heap and sells it to a steel factory. 218 million children work in poorer countries. Some can’t afford to pay the school fees or pay for their uniform, girls often have to help out at home or have to work to support their family. In some countries, school buildings have been destroyed by war or disaster.
  • How many of you think we still need ‘international women’s day?’ There’s no right or wrong answer! Show of hands . Let’s have a quick class vote. Hands up for “yes, no, don’t know”. Any volunteers to explain why you voted this way? Post-its. Write ‘Yes, no or don’t know’ on the post-it in front of you. Now write the reasons for your answer on the same post-it (use more if you need to). Group the post-its on the wall into ‘yes, no, don’t know’. Share and discuss individual answers. Photo: Brian Sokol/ActionAid
  • Send My Friend to School – join us Over the past 100 years many things have changed for girls in Britain. For example, all girls have the right to free, full-time education and to vote once they are 18. But for millions of girls in other parts of the world, it’s a different story. Meet Shengai in Tanzania whose family can’t afford to send her to school. Each and every one of us can help to speak up for girls’ education by creating decorated ‘sister’ characters and messages to send to our MPs. The aim is to help ensure that world leaders keep their promise of education for all. Join us to say ‘Send My Friend to School’ and we will send you a schools pack with posters, stickers, DVD and there will be lots of learning resources made available through the website. Find out more and register to take part at www.sendmyfriend.org Photo: Kate Holt/Shoot the Earth/ActionAid

Transcript

  • 1. International Women’s DayMarch 8 2012
  • 2. International Women’s Day ...A. Celebrates women’s achievementsB. Gives all women the day off workC. Encourages children to give their mother a gift
  • 3. Ways of campaigning Lobbying parliament Direct action
  • 4. Day School timetable 1890 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday9:00–9:15 Prayers Prayers and Prayers and Prayers and Prayers and and singing singing singing singing singing9.15-10.00 Religious Religious Religious Religious Religious instruction instruction instruction instruction instruction10.00-11.00 Spelling Spelling English history Map and Drill and and tables geography grammar11.00-11.10 Recreation Recreation Recreation Recreation Recreation11.10-12.00 Arithmetic Arithmetic Arithmetic Arithmetic Needlework or ScienceLunch2.10-3.00 Reading Reading Dictation Reading Reading3.00-3.30 Writing Writing Writing Writing Writing3.30-4.00 Mental Geography History Dictation Object arithmetic lesson
  • 5. How have things changed in Britain?
  • 6. 1911 2011
  • 7. What about the rest of the world?
  • 8. “Do we still need International Women’s Day?” - Yes - No - Don’t know
  • 9. Send My Sister to School Help get education for all… www.sendmyfriend.org