The 4Cs of CLIL • Content • Communication • Cognition • CultureThese four principles are essential to theCLIL approach. They should be used asthe framework for creating anddelivering successful lessons.
ContentContent refers to the subject or theme ofthe lesson or course. Examples of differentcontent areas include history, science,mathematics, geography, and cookery.When planning the content of our lessons,it is essential to think of the knowledge,skills, and understanding we want ourstudents to learn and not only theknowledge they should acquire.
Communication Because…I think… In my opinion… Here it says…
CommunicationCommunication refers to students using the targetlanguage to communicate their thoughts, opinions,attitudes, and discoveries related to the lessoncontent. Both speaking and writing are emphasized asstudents “learn to use language and use language tolearn”. (Coyle)• Students engage in meaningful interaction with each other. Group work is very common.• The aim is for students to produce authentic language, not to memorize grammar rules and parrot the teacher.• The teacher serves as guide/facilitator.
CognitionCognition refers to the critical thinkingskills that students use to engage with andunderstand course content, to solveproblems, and to reflect on their learning.• A taxonomy such as the one designed by Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) is a helpful guide as we plan lessons. Click the link below for further information (in italiano).
CultureCulture (also known as community andcitizenship) refers to the learningcommunity of a class and school andmore broadly to local and globalcultures. Students are encouraged tounderstand themselves as citizens ofthe world and understand both their ownculture and other cultures. The ultimategoal is to promote internationalawareness and understanding.
BibliographyAdapted from:• Mehisto, Peeter, David Marsh, and Maria Jesus Frigols. Uncovering CLIL. Macmillan Education, 2008.• Coyle, Do, Philip Hood, and David Marsh. CLIL. Cambridge University Press, 2010.