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Paper presented at the Researching Multilingually seminar, held at The University of Manchester, UK. (22-23 May, 2012). Some slides have been added, containing information that was communicated orally ...

Paper presented at the Researching Multilingually seminar, held at The University of Manchester, UK. (22-23 May, 2012). Some slides have been added, containing information that was communicated orally during the seminar.

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    Researching Multilingually (slideshare, expanded) Researching Multilingually (slideshare, expanded) Presentation Transcript

    • Γιαθάνεια ζηα δίγλωζζα δεδομένα:Προθεηικόηηηες και επιλογές αναπαράζηαζηςΑτιλλέας ΚωζηούλαςΔρεσνώνηας με πολλές γλώζζες, 22-23 Μαΐοσ 2012Πανεπιζηήμιο ηοσ Μάνηζεζηερ, Ηνωμένο Βαζίλειο
    • Transparency in bilingual data :Intentionalities & representational positionsAchilleas KostoulasResearching Multilingually, 22-23 May 2012The University of Manchester
    • Overview Representational My study Intentionalities Positions Participants Linguapolitical Unedited Epistemological Standardised A linguistic hierarchy of power Methodological Unabridged Challenges Ethical Summarised
    • Research participants• Learners: – Predominantly Greek (first language: Modern Greek) – Some with immigrant heritage (first language: Greek or Albanian, bilingual?) – Various levels of competence in English• Teachers – Native speakers of Modern Greek – Formally trained in English – Some variance in English language competence• Researcher – Native speaker of Modern Greek – Competent in English
    • A linguistic hierarchy Teachers Proficient learners Not so proficient learners
    • A linguistic hierarchy Teachers Researcher? Proficient learners Not so proficient learners
    • INTENTIONALITIES1. Lingua-political2. Epistemological3. Methodological4. Ethical
    • Lingua-political (I):The spread of English• Mounting concern about the global spread of English (Crystal, 2000, Calvet 1999, Ngugi 1986, Phillipson 1992, 2009b).• The spread of English in the academic domain, may lead to social capital deprecation among speakers of other languages. (cf. Phillipson 2009a).• It would be helpful if scholarship could be produces in forms that acknowledge the diversity of the local linguistic ecology.Crystal, D. (2000). Language death. Cambridge ; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Calvet, L. J. (1999). La guerre de langues et de politiques linguistiques. Paris: Hachette. wa Thiongʼo (1986). Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. London : J. Currey.Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Phillipson, R. (2009a). English in globalisation, a lingua franca or a lingua frankensteinia? TESOL Quarterly, 43, 335-339.Phillipson, R. (2009b). Linguistic imperialism continued. New York, NY: Routledge.
    • Lingua-political (II):Greek as a tri-graphic language Ἑλληνικὰ: Πολυτονικῆ Γραφῆ • Falling into disuse. • In need of preservation. Ελληνικά: Μονοτονική Γραφή • Current standard; largely standardised • Unmarked. Ellhnika: Latinotropos grafh • Non-standardised; controversial • In need of legitimating.
    • Epistemological• Is 1-to-1 semantic equivalence… – desirable? – possible?• Whose ‘voice’ does a translation convey?
    • Methodological Στο μάθημα των Αγγλικών πρώτα γράφουμε ορθογραφία, στησυνέχεια λέμε το μάθημα, μετά κάνουμε ασκήσεις, και στο τέλος μας βάζουν ασκήσεις για το σπίτι, αλλά και λέξεις για ορθογραφία.Literal translation Interim documentIn the lesson of English, In a [typical] English lesson,first we do the dictation, we start with a vocabulary test,then we say the lesson, then we go through a presentation,next we do exercises, next we do exercises,and in the end they put on and in the end we are assignedus exercises for the house, homework,but and words for dictation. and [told to learn] some words.
    • EthicalM: I think it is very important. I. I don’t say that, teachers who are not native speaker, speakers are not good at their job, but I >if we take into consideration the fact that students are examined< (2 sec) in . <the part where they have to listen to a tape, which is, is recorded by, English>. I I think it is very important because they come into contact with. new forms of language that perhaps is used by, the speaker (2 sec) with the pronunciation, intonation and, this helps them, a lot. [...]M: and then ask my students to give me examples. For example (2 sec) I when I teached the passive voice, I gave them the rule, and I told them ‘try to give me an example’. But this didn’t work with everybody because they feel the pressure that ‘I have to use the foreign language’ and they couldn’t do this.
    • REPRESENTATIONALPOSITIONS1. Verbatim2. Standardised3. Unabridged4. Summarised
    • A cline of representational positions Transparent Opaque Verbatim Standardised Unabridged Summarised data data data data Bilingual Monolingual representation representation
    • Verbatim bilingual dataAmy: Και το ξζρεισ κι εςφ καλφτερα από Amy: And I’m sure you know this better μζνα, πωσ ςτθν ςχ- >το μάκαμε και than I do, that at uni- >when we were απ’ τθν ςχολι< ότι για να μάκει το at University< we learnt that for a child παιδί κάτι πρζπει απαραίτθτα να γίνει to learn there needs to be some kind of καποιο «noticing», ζτςι; (2 sec) Αλλά noticing, right? But when an ο Άγγλοσ όταν μιλάει με ςωςτι, με Englishman speaks in correct, in RP RP, κα πει «dishes» αλλά επειδι είναι [Received Pronunciation], he will say native speaker, κα είναι με devoicing “dishes” but because he’s a native ςτο /d/, ξζρεισ, και καλά ςαν speaker it will be with devoicing in the *«tishes» (3 sec) /d/, you know, as in, like *“tishes”Achilleas : Πιςτ- Νομίηεσ ότι αυτό Achilleas: Do you belie- Do you think that είναι, ότι αποτελεί πρόβλθ*μα; this is, it amounts to a prob[lem?Amy: *Ναι, αλλά ο Αγγλοσ Amy: [Yes, but the αυτό το κάνει χωρίσ να το Englishman does this without καταλαβαίνει, γιατί είναι native understanding, because he’s a native speaker. Και όχι μόνο αυτό, δεν speaker. And not only that, he doesn’t καταλαβαίνει κιόλασ ότι αυτό even understand that this is, ti είναι, ςυνιςτά πρόβλθμα για τον constitutes a problem for the Greek Ζλλθνα μακθτι, αν μιλάει ζτςι. students, if that’s how he speaks.
    • Verbatim bilingual dataAmy: Και το ξζρεισ κι εςφ καλφτερα από Amy: And I’m sure you know this better μζνα, πωσ ςτθν ςχ- >το μάκαμε και than I do, that at uni- >when we were απ’ τθν ςχολι< ότι για να μάκει το at University< we learnt that for a child παιδί κάτι πρζπει απαραίτθτα να γίνει to learn there needs to be some kind of καποιο «noticing», ζτςι; (2 sec) Αλλά noticing, right? But when an ο Άγγλοσ όταν μιλάει με ςωςτι, με Englishman speaks in correct, in RP RP, κα πει «dishes» αλλά επειδι είναι [Received Pronunciation], he will say native speaker, κα είναι με devoicing “dishes” but because he’s a native ςτο /d/, ξζρεισ, και καλά ςαν speaker it will be with devoicing in the *«tishes» (3 sec) /d/, you know, as in, like *“tishes”Achilleas : Πιςτ- Νομίηεσ ότι αυτό Achilleas: Do you belie- Do you think that είναι, ότι αποτελεί πρόβλθ*μα; this is, it amounts to a prob[lem?Amy: *Ναι, αλλά ο Αγγλοσ Amy: [Yes, but the αυτό το κάνει χωρίσ να το Englishman does this without καταλαβαίνει, γιατί είναι native understanding, because he’s a native speaker. Και όχι μόνο αυτό, δεν speaker. And not only that, he doesn’t καταλαβαίνει κιόλασ ότι αυτό even understand that this is, it είναι, ςυνιςτά πρόβλθμα για τον constitutes a problem for the Greek Ζλλθνα μακθτι, αν μιλάει ζτςι. students, if that’s how he speaks.
    • Verbatim bilingual data• Highlights theoretically significant aspects of form.• Promotes visibility of languages other than English. BUT• Can we completely avoid being selective & reductive?• Is the word-space used at the expense of argument?• Can the dissemination outlet typographically support this?
    • Standardised bilingual data«Δε μου αρζςει και τόςο όταν βαργεμε (sic) *...+ γιατι οτανβαργεμε (sic), βαργεμε (sic)». [I don’t really like it when I’mbord (sic) […] because when I’m bord (sic), I’m bord (sic).]«Δε μου αρζςει και τόςο όταν βαριζμαι [...] γιατί ότανβαριζμαι, βαριζμαι». [I don’t really like it when I’mbored […] because when I’m bored, I’m bored.]
    • Standardised bilingual data• Removes language infelicities that might detract attention from the participants’ view.• Levels off differences between competent and not-so-competent users. BUT• Whose standard is used? Why?• Is the data distorted in this way?
    • Unabridged monolingual data … to write, we don’t make mistakes and readind grammar rules. In an English class we should to learn grammar, reading and listening, because with them … Νομίηω ότι το ςθμαντικότερο είναι θ γραμματικι και το λεξιλόγιο … Πιςτεφω ότι πρζπει να ξζρουμε γραμματικι, λεξιλόγιο, listening και speaking για να … My opinion is a little bit more important. Grammar lessons because this will help us speak … Εγώ πιςτεφω ότι πρζπει και να ξζρουμε γραμματικι και να μιλάμε καλά χωρίσ πολλά λάκοι. I will have lots of exercises, reading and grammar, because I will have more exercise for it, …Γραμματικι, γιατί πιςτεφω ότι εάν ξζρεισ καλά τθ γραμματικι ξζρεισ και να μιλάσ και να διαβάηεισ αλλά κ.α. Views such as the following were typical of the students’ responses: “I believe that the most important [thing] is grammar and vocabulary…”
    • Unabridged monolingual data• Useful when presenting quotes that symbolically represent large sets of bilingual data, rather than actual utterances. BUT• How is the quote selected?• Does it reinforce language inequalities?
    • Summarised monolingual dataWhen I asked one of the teachers, whom I knew topresent very comprehensive notes, to comment on thispractice she replied that: …the grammar sections [in the books] were not very useful to the students, as they tend not to read them, but they are quite useful to the teachers, because they allow them to elaborate on the grammatical content of the lesson. After prompting, she explained that learners are of course exposed to new grammar in the language input sections of the materials, but this is not always comprehensive as it did not cover all eventualities or exceptions. For instance, there may be a text in the students’ books demonstrating the plural forms of nouns, but it’s unlikely to contain enough input to cover all the irregular forms. (Donna)
    • Summarised monolingual data• Highlights content rather than form.• Useful when transcript might damage participants’ confidence and / or reputation. BUT• Is transparency compromised?
    • THANK YOU FOR YOURATTENTIONAchilleas.Kostoulas@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk
    • COMMENTS?Achilleas.Kostoulas@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk