What We Encode

1. Encoding by meaning
2. Encoding by images
3. Encoding by organization




                             ...
Encoding Meaning
Process the meaning of verbal information
  by associating it with what we already
            know or im...
Visual Encoding
Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to
effortful processing, especially when combined
           ...
Mnemonics


Imagery is at the heart of many memory aids.
Mnemonic techniques use vivid imagery and
  organizational device...
Organizing Information for
            Encoding

Break down complex information into broad
 concepts and further subdivide...
Chunking
Organizing items into a familiar, manageable
 unit. Try to remember the numbers below.

       1-7-7-6-1-4-9-2-1-...
Hierarchy
 Complex information broken down into broad
concepts and further subdivided into categories
              and su...
Encoding Summarized in a
       Hierarchy




                           8
Storage: Retaining Information
    Storage is at the heart of memory. Three
      stores of memory are shown below:

     ...
Sensory Memory

         Sensory      Working         Long-term
         Memory       Memory           Memory

           ...
Whole Report
           (iconic memory)
                  Sperling (1960)


  R G T                          “Recall”
  F ...
Partial Report


  S X T                 Low Tone
                                         “Recall”
  J R S               ...
Sensory Memory
The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss.
    Percent Recognized




                         80

...
Sensory Memories
The duration of sensory memory varies for the
              different senses.


            Iconic
      ...
Working Memory

         Sensory      Working         Long-term
         Memory       Memory           Memory

           ...
Working Memory
Working memory, the new name for short-term
memory, has a limited capacity (7±2) and a short
           dur...
Chunking
The capacity of the working memory may be
         increased by “chunking.”


       F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M

   ...
Long-Term Memory

         Sensory      Working         Long-term
         Memory       Memory           Memory

         ...
Long-Term Memory
Essentially unlimited capacity store.




                                          R.J. Erwin/ Photo Res...
Memory Stores

           Sensory      Working
Feature                               LTM
           Memory       Memory

E...
Storing Memories in the Brain
1. Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed previous
   research data showing, through brain
   sti...
Synaptic Changes
Long-Term Potentiation




                                    Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, ...
Stress Hormones & Memory
  Heightened emotions (stress-related or
 otherwise) make for stronger memories.
Flashbulb memori...
Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories

 Explicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one
   can consciously know an...
Hippocampus
Hippocampus – a neural center in the limbic
 system that processes explicit memories.




                    ...
Anterograde Amnesia
 After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient
Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the
opera...
Implicit Memory
 HM is unable to make new memories that are
  declarative (explicit), but he can form new
   memories that...
Cerebellum
Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain
     that processes implicit memories.




                      ...
Retrieval: Getting Information Out

Retrieval refers to getting information out of
              the memory store.




   ...
Measures of Memory
In recognition, the person must identify an item
 amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test
      ...
Measures of Memory
In recall, the person must retrieve information
 using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires
     ...
Retrieval Cues
   Memories are held in storage by a web of
associations. These associations are like anchors
           th...
Priming
To retrieve a specific memory from the web of
associations, you must first activate one of the
 strands that leads...
Context Effects
Scuba divers recall more words underwater if they
learned the list underwater, while they recall more
   w...
Déjà Vu
Déjà Vu means “I've experienced this before.”
      Cues from the current situation may
  unconsciously trigger re...
Moods and Memories
We usually recall experiences that are consistent
   with our current mood (state-dependent
           ...
Forgetting
An inability to retrieve information due to
  poor encoding, storage, or retrieval.




                       ...
Storage Decay
Poor durability of stored memories leads to
 their decay. Ebbinghaus showed this with
            his forget...
Retaining Spanish
Bahrick (1984) showed a similar pattern of
  forgetting and retaining over 50 years.




               ...
Retrieval Failure
Although the information is retained in the
    memory store, it cannot be accessed.




  Tip-of-the-to...
Interference
Learning some new information may disrupt
       retrieval of other information.




                        ...
Retroactive Interference
Sleep prevents retroactive interference. Therefore, it
               leads to better recall.



...
Why do we forget?



Forgetting can occur at
any memory stage. We
  filter, alter, or lose
  much information
 during thes...
Memory Construction

While tapping our memories, we filter or fill in
  missing pieces of information to make our
        ...
Misinformation and Imagination
              Effects
Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when
        questioned about...
Misinformation
Group A: How fast were the cars going
         when they hit each other?

Group B: How fast were the cars g...
Memory Construction
                         A week later they were asked: Was there any
                         broken g...
Source Amnesia
 Source Amnesia: Attributing an event to the
wrong source that we experienced, heard, read,
        or imag...
Children’s Eyewitness Recall
Children’s eyewitness recall can be unreliable if
         leading questions are posed.

Howe...
Constructed Memories
Loftus’ research shows that if false memories
 (lost at the mall or drowned in a lake) are
  implante...
Consensus on Childhood Abuse

 Leading psychological associations of the world agree
 on the following concerning childhoo...
Improving Memory
1. Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall.
2. Spend more time rehearsing or actively
   thinking abou...
Improving Memory
5. Activate retrieval cues — mentally recreate
   the situation and mood.
6. Recall events while they are...
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Chapter 8 Part 2

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Chapter 8 Part 2

  1. 1. What We Encode 1. Encoding by meaning 2. Encoding by images 3. Encoding by organization 1
  2. 2. Encoding Meaning Process the meaning of verbal information by associating it with what we already know or imagine. Encoding meaning (semantic encoding) results in better recognition later than visual or acoustic encoding. 2
  3. 3. Visual Encoding Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. Both photos: Ho/AP Photo Showing adverse effects of tanning and smoking in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it. 3
  4. 4. Mnemonics Imagery is at the heart of many memory aids. Mnemonic techniques use vivid imagery and organizational devices in aiding memory. 4
  5. 5. Organizing Information for Encoding Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories. 1. Chunking 2. Hierarchies 5
  6. 6. Chunking Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below. 1-7-7-6-1-4-9-2-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better. 1776 1492 1812 1941. 6
  7. 7. Hierarchy Complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories. 7
  8. 8. Encoding Summarized in a Hierarchy 8
  9. 9. Storage: Retaining Information Storage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below: Sensory Working Long-term Memory Memory Memory Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval Retrieval 9
  10. 10. Sensory Memory Sensory Working Long-term Memory Memory Memory Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval Retrieval 10
  11. 11. Whole Report (iconic memory) Sperling (1960) R G T “Recall” F M Q RTMZ (44% recall) L Z S 50 ms (1/20 second) The exposure time for the stimulus is so small that items cannot be rehearsed. 11
  12. 12. Partial Report S X T Low Tone “Recall” J R S Medium Tone JRS (100% recall) P K Y High Tone 50 ms (1/20 second) Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought. 12
  13. 13. Sensory Memory The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss. Percent Recognized 80 60 40 20 0.15 0.30 0.50 1.00 Time (Seconds) 13
  14. 14. Sensory Memories The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses. Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic < 1 sec. long 14
  15. 15. Working Memory Sensory Working Long-term Memory Memory Memory Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval Retrieval 15
  16. 16. Working Memory Working memory, the new name for short-term memory, has a limited capacity (7±2) and a short duration (20 seconds). Sir George Hamilton observed that he could accurately remember up to 7 beans thrown on the floor. If there were more beans, he guessed. 16
  17. 17. Chunking The capacity of the working memory may be increased by “chunking.” F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M FBI TWA CIA IBM 4 chunks 17
  18. 18. Long-Term Memory Sensory Working Long-term Memory Memory Memory Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval Retrieval 18
  19. 19. Long-Term Memory Essentially unlimited capacity store. R.J. Erwin/ Photo Researchers The Clark’s nutcracker can locate 6,000 caches of buried pine seeds during winter and spring. 19
  20. 20. Memory Stores Sensory Working Feature LTM Memory Memory Encoding Copy Phonemic Semantic Capacity Unlimited 7±2 Chunks Very Large Duration 0.25 sec. 20 sec. Years 20
  21. 21. Storing Memories in the Brain 1. Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed previous research data showing, through brain stimulation, that memories were etched into the brain and found that only a handful of brain stimulated patients reported flashbacks. 2. Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze. 21
  22. 22. Synaptic Changes Long-Term Potentiation Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov. 25 1999. Courtesy of Dominique Muller (LTP) refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses. 22
  23. 23. Stress Hormones & Memory Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Flashbulb memories are clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events Scott Barbour/ Getty Images 23
  24. 24. Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories Explicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows. 24
  25. 25. Hippocampus Hippocampus – a neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories. Weidenfield & Nicolson archives 25
  26. 26. Anterograde Amnesia After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia. Anterograde Amnesia Memory Intact No New Memories (HM) Surgery 26
  27. 27. Implicit Memory HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form new memories that are procedural (implicit). A B C HM learned the Tower of Hanoi (game) after his surgery. Each time he plays it, he is unable to remember the fact that he has already played the game. 27
  28. 28. Cerebellum Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories. 28
  29. 29. Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store. Spanky’s Yearbook Archive Spanky’s Yearbook Archive 29
  30. 30. Measures of Memory In recognition, the person must identify an item amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test requires recognition.) 1. Name the capital of France. a. Brussels b. Rome c. London d. Paris 30
  31. 31. Measures of Memory In recall, the person must retrieve information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.) 1. The capital of France is ______. 31
  32. 32. Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory. water smell hose Fire Truck fire smoke truck heat red 32
  33. 33. Priming To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called priming. 33
  34. 34. Context Effects Scuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on land (Godden & Baddeley, 1975). Fred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers 34
  35. 35. Déjà Vu Déjà Vu means “I've experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience. cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved © The New Yorker Collection, 1990. Leo Cullum from 35
  36. 36. Moods and Memories We usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood (state-dependent memory). Emotions, or moods, serve as retrieval cues. Our memories are mood-congruent. 36
  37. 37. Forgetting An inability to retrieve information due to poor encoding, storage, or retrieval. 37
  38. 38. Storage Decay Poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. Ebbinghaus showed this with his forgetting curve. 38
  39. 39. Retaining Spanish Bahrick (1984) showed a similar pattern of forgetting and retaining over 50 years. 39
  40. 40. Retrieval Failure Although the information is retained in the memory store, it cannot be accessed. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is a retrieval failure phenomenon. Given a cue (What makes blood cells red?) the subject says the word begins with an H (hemoglobin). 40
  41. 41. Interference Learning some new information may disrupt retrieval of other information. 41
  42. 42. Retroactive Interference Sleep prevents retroactive interference. Therefore, it leads to better recall. 42
  43. 43. Why do we forget? Forgetting can occur at any memory stage. We filter, alter, or lose much information during these stages. 43
  44. 44. Memory Construction While tapping our memories, we filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent. Misinformation Effect: Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event. 44
  45. 45. Misinformation and Imagination Effects Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event. Depiction of the actual accident. 45
  46. 46. Misinformation Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? 46
  47. 47. Memory Construction A week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit). 50 Broken Glass? (%) 40 32 30 20 14 10 0 Group A (hit) Group B (Smashed into) Verb 47
  48. 48. Source Amnesia Source Amnesia: Attributing an event to the wrong source that we experienced, heard, read, or imagined (misattribution). 48
  49. 49. Children’s Eyewitness Recall Children’s eyewitness recall can be unreliable if leading questions are posed. However, if cognitive interviews are neutrally worded, the accuracy of their recall increases. In cases of sexual abuse, this usually suggests a lower percentage of abuse. 49
  50. 50. Constructed Memories Loftus’ research shows that if false memories (lost at the mall or drowned in a lake) are implanted in individuals, they construct (fabricate) their memories. 50
  51. 51. Consensus on Childhood Abuse Leading psychological associations of the world agree on the following concerning childhood sexual abuse: 1. Injustice happens. 2. Incest and other sexual abuse happen. 3. People may forget. 4. Recovered memories are commonplace. 5. Recovered memories under hypnosis or drugs are unreliable. 6. Memories of things happening before 3 years of age are unreliable. 7. Memories, whether real or false, are emotionally upsetting. 51
  52. 52. Improving Memory 1. Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall. 2. Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material. 3. Make material personally meaningful. 4. Use mnemonic devices:  associate with peg words — something already stored  make up a story  chunk — acronyms 52
  53. 53. Improving Memory 5. Activate retrieval cues — mentally recreate the situation and mood. 6. Recall events while they are fresh — before you encounter misinformation. 7. Minimize interference: 1. Test your own knowledge. 2. Rehearse and then determine what you do not yet know. 53
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