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Chapter 8 Part 1



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  • 1. 1
    MemoryChapter 8
  • 2. 2
    Studying Memory: Definition
    Atkinson and Shiffrin’s Information Processing Model (components).
    • Sensory Memory
    • 3. Working/Short-Term Memory
    • 4. Long-Term Memory
    • 5. Storing Memories in the Brain (Long term Potentiation).
    Encoding: Getting Information In
    • How We Encode (Iconic and Echoic Memory)
    • 6. What We Encode
  • 3
    Flashbulb memories
    Implicit and Explicit Memories
    Retrieval: Getting Information Out (retrieval cues and mood congruency)
    Forgetting (Schacter’s 7 ways of forgetting)
    Encoding Failure, Storage Decay, Retrieval Failure (Interferences)
  • 7. 4
    Memory Construction
    • Misinformation and Imagination Effects
    • 8. Source Amnesia
    • 9. Discerning True and False Memories
    • 10. Children’s Eyewitness Recall
    • 11. Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse?
  • 5
    Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself.
    If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new.
  • 12. 6
    The Phenomenon of Memory
    Memory is clearly very important but what is it.
    How do we define it?
  • 13. 7
    Studying Memory: Information Processing Models
    Sequential Process
  • 14. 8
    Information Processing
    The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory,b) short-term memory, and c) long-term memory.
    Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/
    Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
    Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
  • 15. 9
    Modifications to the Three-Stage Model
    Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically.
    Since we cannot focus on all the sensory information received, we select information that is important to us and actively process it into our working memory.
  • 16. 10
    Encoding: Getting Information In
    How We Encode
    Some information (route to your school) is automatically processed.
    However, new or unusual information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort.
  • 17. 11
    Automatic Processing
    Space: While reading a textbook, you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page.
    Time: We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day.
    Frequency: You effortlessly keep track of things that happen to you.
  • 18. 12
    Effortful Processing
    Committing novel information to memory requires effort just like learning a concept from a textbook. Such processing leads to durable and accessible memories.
    Spencer Grant/ Photo Edit
    © Bananastock/ Alamy
  • 19. 13
    Effortful Processing and Rehearsal
    Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition.
    Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ
  • 20. 14
    Memory Effects
    Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time.
    Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items.
    • Recency and Primacy effects -