1. Reviewing the giving and ReceivingJapanese people like gifts One thing about Japanese culture is that theyre big on giving gifts. There are manydiﬀerent customs involving giving and receiving gifts (お歳暮、お中元、etc.) and when oseibo ochuugenJapanese people go traveling, you can be sure that theyre going to be picking upsouvenirs to take back as gifts. Even when attending marriages or funerals, peopleare expected to give a certain amount of money as a gift to help fund the ceremony.You can see why properly learning how to express the giving and receiving of favorsand items is a very important and useful skill. For some reason, the proper use of「あげます」 and 「もらいます」 has always haunted people studying Japanese as agemasu moraimasubeing horribly complex and intractable. I hope to prove in this lesson that it sconceptually quite straightforward and simple.
When to use あげますあげます is the Japanese word for "to give". You must use this verb whenagemasusomeone (as the giver) is giving something (as the object) to someone (as thereceiver). The particle に is used to indicate to whom an object is delivered. Also niwhen the subject of a sentence is the giver あげます is used. agemasuperson(giver) は person(receiver) に Object を あげます。 wa ni o agemasu ＊ ex. スミスさんは チャンさんに はなを あげました。 sumisu san wa chan-san ni hana o agemashita Mr. Smith gave Ms. Chan some ﬂower. に ＊The verb あげます conjugates to the past form as あげました. agemasu agemashita
When to use もらいますmoraimasuもらいます is the Japanese word for "to receive". You must use this verb whensomeone (as the receiver) is receiving something (as the object) from nisomeone (as the giver). The particle に is used to indicate from whom ran a s u m o a i m objectis delivered. Also when the subject of a sentence is the receiver もらいます isperson(receiver)used. は person(giver) に Object を もらいます。 wa ni o moraimasu ＊ ex. チャンさん は スミスさんに はなを もらいました。 chan-san wa sumisu-san ni hana o moraimashita Ms. Chan received some ﬂower from Mr. Smith. に ＊The verb もらいます conjugates to the past form as もらいました. agemasu agemashita
Exception case with あげますWith あげます, I (the speaker) can NOT be the receiver. There are only 4 cases agemasuas below. ① I give to you (the listener). あ げ ま す ② I give to others. ③ Others ① You ④ ③ You (the listener) give to others. I ② Others ④ Somebody gives to somebody else.person(giver) は わたし(receiver) に Object を あげます。 wa watashi ni o agemasu ex. スミスさんは わたしに はなを あげました。 sumisu san wa watashi ni hana o agemashita (Mr. Smith gave me some ﬂower.) Instead, we use the verb くれます in this exception cases. ex. スミスさんは わたしに はなを くれました。 sumisu san wa watashi ni hana o kuremashita (Mr. Smith gave me some ﬂower.)
あげます vs. くれます agemasu kuremasuJapanese has two verbs for giving. The choice between the pair depends on thedirection of the transaction. Imagine a set of concentric spheres of relativepsychological distances, with me at the center, you next to me, and all the otherson the edge. When a thing moves away from the center, the transaction isdescribed in terms of the verb あげます. When a thing moves toward the center,the verb we use is くれます. With both あげます and くれます, the giver is the kuremasu agemasu kuremasusubject of the sentence, and is accompanied by the particle は. The recipient isaccompanied by the particle に. I give to you (the listener). I give to others. You (the listener) give to others. あ げ ま す Somebody gives to somebody else. I You Others く れ ま す Somebody gives me. You (the listener) give me.People in very close relation such as the speaker s Somebody gives you (the listener).family members are included as I with くれます.