Japanese for Busy People 1
Lesson 14
Grammar Notes of Japanese Adjectives 2
1. Conjugating Adjectives to Past Tense
1-1: i-adjectives
Please answer the question below;

Q1:

k i n o u

n a n i o

t ...
Then you are asked another question as;

Q2:

sushiwa

d o u deshi t a k a

すしは どうでしたか。
How was the sushi?

The question a...
1-1: i-adjectives
i-adjectives in the past tense relatively follow the pattern to the present
negative form ;
Present Affirm...
1-1: i-adjectives
However, there is one exception which is いいです(iidesu) , just as you ve learned its
affirmative negative fo...
A. Practice conjugating : i-adjectives
PRESENT FORM

PAST FORM

aff.
cold
hot
fun
good
bad
interesting
tasty
boring

neg.

...
1. Conjugating Adjectives to Past Tense
1-2: na-adjectives
Please answer the question below;
s e n s h u u

p

a

a

t

i
...
1. Conjugating Adjectives to Past Tense
1-2: na-adjectives
Then you are asked another question as;

Q2 :

p

a

a

t

i

i...
1-2: na-adjectives
na-adjectives in the past tense relatively follow the pattern to the present negative
form as well ;
Pr...
1-2: na-adjectives
In many cases, learners attach な(na) when they conjugate na-adjectives as the
previous page. Please not...
A. Practice conjugating : na-adjectives

PRESENT FORM

PAST FORM

aff.
pretty
quiet
lively

neg.

aff.

neg.

きれいです

きれいではあり...
Extent in Japanese
100 %

とても

Very, Extremely

まあまあ

kind of, so so

あまり

not very, not much

totemo

maamaa

amari

0%

...
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Grammar notes l14

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Japanese For Busy People Book-1, Lesson 14, Adjectives Conjugations Grammar Notes.

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Grammar notes l14

  1. 1. Japanese for Busy People 1 Lesson 14 Grammar Notes of Japanese Adjectives 2
  2. 2. 1. Conjugating Adjectives to Past Tense 1-1: i-adjectives Please answer the question below; Q1: k i n o u n a n i o t a b e mashi t a k a きのう なにを たべましたか。 What did you eat yesterday? The question asks What did you eat yesterday? with the question word なに(nani) . Say if you had sushi yesterday, your answer would be; A1: sushi o t a b e mashi t a すしを たべました。 I had(ate) sushi.
  3. 3. Then you are asked another question as; Q2: sushiwa d o u deshi t a k a すしは どうでしたか。 How was the sushi? The question asks How was the sushi? with a question word どう(dou) . Say if you liked the sushi and you d like to answer it as It was delicious. ; sushiwa o i s h i i desu A2: (すしは)おいしいです。 It is delicious. Now you ve noticed what is wrong with the answer in Japanese above. You definitely have to change おいしいです (oishii desu) to a past tense. But it will not become おいしいでした (oishii deshita) . Let s take a look how we conjugate adjectives to the past tense.
  4. 4. 1-1: i-adjectives i-adjectives in the past tense relatively follow the pattern to the present negative form ; Present Affirmative Present Negative おいしいです おいしくないです oishii desu oishiku naidesu You remove the final い(i) in each i-adjective then replace it to either かった (katta) as the past affirmative or くなかった(kunakatta) as the past negative. Present Affirmative Past Affirmative おいしいです おいしかったです oishii desu oishikatta desu Past Negative おいしくなかったです oishiku nakattadesu Thus the answer to the last question on the previous page should be; A2: (すしは)おいしかったです。 sushi wa o i s h i k a t t a d e s u = It was delicious.
  5. 5. 1-1: i-adjectives However, there is one exception which is いいです(iidesu) , just as you ve learned its affirmative negative form as よくないです(yokunaidesu) , the past tense for both affirmative and negative forms follow the same pattern; Present Negative よくないです yoku naidesu Present Affirmative いいです iidesu Past Affirmative よかったです yokatta desu Past Negative よくなかったです yoku nakattadesu Please note that いいです(iidesu) has an other form as よいです(yoidesu) as the same term, and よ(yo) out of this other form appears in above three conjugations. Let s take a look at the chart on the textbook page 133 for other i-adjective conjugations with audio files for you to review them.
  6. 6. A. Practice conjugating : i-adjectives PRESENT FORM PAST FORM aff. cold hot fun good bad interesting tasty boring neg. aff. neg. さむいです さむくないです さむかったです さむくなかったです samui desu samuku naidesu samukatta desu samuku nakattadesu あついです あつくないです あつかったです あつくなかったです atsui desu a t s uku naidesu a t s ukatta desu a t s uku nakattadesu たのしいです たのしくないです tanoshii desu tanoshiku naidesu tanoshikatta desu tanoshiku nakattadesu いいです よくないです よかったです よくなかったです ii desu yoku naidesu yokatta desu yoku nakattadesu わるいです わるくないです わるかったです わるくなかったです warui desu w a r uku naidesu w a r ukatta desu w a r uku nakattadesu おもしろいです たのしかったです たのしくなかったです omoshiroi desu おもしろくないです おもしろかったです おもしろくなかったで omoshiroku naidesu omoshirokatta desu omoshiroku nakattadesu す おいしいです おいしくないです おいしかったです おいしくなかったです oishii desu つまらないです tsumaranai desu o i s h i ku naidesu o i s h i katta desu o i s h i ku nakattadesu つまらなくないです つまらなかったです つまらなくなかったで tsumaranaku naidesu tsumaranakatta desu tsumaranaku nakattadesu す
  7. 7. 1. Conjugating Adjectives to Past Tense 1-2: na-adjectives Please answer the question below; s e n s h u u p a a t i i n i i k i mashi t a k a Q1: せんしゅう パーティーに いきましたか。 Did you go to the party last week? Say if you went to the party last week, your answer would be; h a i i k i mashi t a A1: はい、いきました。 Yes, I did.
  8. 8. 1. Conjugating Adjectives to Past Tense 1-2: na-adjectives Then you are asked another question as; Q2 : p a a t i i wa d o u deshi t a k a (パーティーは) どう でしたか。 How was the party? The question asks How was the party? with the question word どう(dou) . Say if you think the party was lively and you d like to answer as It was lively. ; A2 : p a a t i i wa n i g i y a k adesu (パーティーは)にぎやかです。 It is lively. Again, you ve noticed what is wrong with the answer in Japanese above. You definitely have to change にぎやかです (nigiyaka desu) to the past tense. Now it will become にぎやかでした (nigiyaka deshita) . As you see the naadjectives have mush simpler conjugations than i-adjectives. Let s take a look how we conjugate na-adjectives to the past tense.
  9. 9. 1-2: na-adjectives na-adjectives in the past tense relatively follow the pattern to the present negative form as well ; Present Affirmative Present Negative にぎやかです にぎやかではありません nigiyaka desu nigiyaka dewa arimasen You just replace です(desu) to either でした(deshita) as the past affirmative or ではありませんでした(dewa arimasen deshita) as the past negative. Present Affirmative Past Affirmative にぎやかです にぎやかでした nigiyaka desu nigiyaka desita Past Negative にぎやかではありませんでした nigiyaka dewa arimasen deshita Thus the answer to the last question on the previous page should be; A2: (パーティーは)にぎやかでした。 paatii wa nigiyakadeshita = It was lively.
  10. 10. 1-2: na-adjectives In many cases, learners attach な(na) when they conjugate na-adjectives as the previous page. Please note that it is incorrect and な(na) is only added when na-adjectives modify nouns ; Present Affirmative にぎやかです It s lively. nigiyaka desu Modifying Noun にぎやかな パーティーです It s a lively party. nigiyaka na paatii desu Present Negative にぎやかなではありません nigiyaka na dewa arimasen Past Affirmative These are all incorrect ! にぎやかなでした nigiyaka na desita Past Negative にぎやかなではありませんでした nigiyaka na dewa arimasen deshita Let s take a look at the chart on the textbook page 133 for other na-adjective conjugations with audio files for you to review them.
  11. 11. A. Practice conjugating : na-adjectives PRESENT FORM PAST FORM aff. pretty quiet lively neg. aff. neg. きれいです きれいではありません きれいでした きれいではありませんでした kirei desu kiei dewa arimasenn kirei deshita kirei dewa arimasen deshita しずかです しずかではありません しずかでした しずかではありませんでした shizuka desu shizuka dewa arimasenn shizuka deshita shizuka dewa arimasen deshita にぎやかでした にぎやかではありませんでした nigiyaka deshita nigiyaka dewa arimasen deshita にぎやかです にぎやかではありません nigiyaka desu nigiyaka dewa arimasenn You can practice various conjugations with Drills provided separately.
  12. 12. Extent in Japanese 100 % とても Very, Extremely まあまあ kind of, so so あまり not very, not much totemo maamaa amari 0% ぜんぜん not at all zenzen あまり(amari) and ぜんぜん(zenzen) anticipate the negative at the end of the sentence. ex. この えいがは とても おもしろいです。 This movie is very interesting. kono eiga wa totemo omoshiroi desu この えいがは まあまあ おもしろいです。 This movie is kind of interesting. kono eiga wa maamaa omoshiroi desu この えいがは あまり おもしろくないです。 This movie is not very interesting. kono eiga wa amari omoshiroku naidesu この えいがは ぜんぜん おもしろくないです。 This movie is not interesting at all. kono eiga wa zenzen omoshiroku naidesu
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