Grammar note 5


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Grammar note 5

  1. 1. Lesson 13 Lesson Recap
  2. 2. 1. Reviewing the giving and ReceivingJapanese people like gifts One thing about Japanese culture is that theyre big on giving gifts. There are manydifferent customs involving giving and receiving gifts (お歳暮、お中元、etc.) and when oseibo ochuugenJapanese people go traveling, you can be sure that theyre going to be picking upsouvenirs to take back as gifts. Even when attending marriages or funerals, peopleare expected to give a certain amount of money as a gift to help fund the ceremony.You can see why properly learning how to express the giving and receiving of favorsand items is a very important and useful skill. For some reason, the proper use of「あげます」 and 「もらいます」 has always haunted people studying Japanese as agemasu moraimasubeing horribly complex and intractable. I hope to prove in this lesson that it sconceptually quite straightforward and simple.
  3. 3. When to use あげますあげます is the Japanese word for "to give". You must use this verb whenagemasusomeone (as the giver) is giving something (as the object) to someone (as thereceiver). The particle に is used to indicate to whom an object is delivered. Also niwhen the subject of a sentence is the giver あげます is used. agemasuperson(giver) は person(receiver) に Object を あげます。 wa ni o agemasu * ex. スミスさんは チャンさんに はなを あげました。 sumisu san wa chan-san ni hana o agemashita Mr. Smith gave Ms. Chan some flower. に *The verb あげます conjugates to the past form as あげました. agemasu agemashita
  4. 4. When to use もらいますもらいます is the Japanese word for "to receive". You must use this verb whenmoraimasusomeone (as the receiver) is receiving something (as the object) fromsomeone (as the giver). The particle に is used to indicate from whom an object niis delivered. Also when the subject of a sentence is the receiver もらいます is moraimasuused.person(receiver) は person(giver) に Object を もらいます。 wa ni o moraimasu * ex. チャンさん は スミスさんに はなを もらいました。 chan-san wa sumisu-san ni hana o moraimashita Ms. Chan received some flower from Mr. Smith. に *The verb もらいます conjugates to the past form as もらいました. agemasu agemashita
  5. 5. Exercise 3B) Ask and answer whom someone received somethingfrom. • Asking whom, you should use the question word だれ(dare) = who with a particle に(ni) . Subject(person) は だれ に Object を Verb (past) か。 wa dare ni o ka ex. A:スミスさんは だれに えいがの きっぷを もらいましたか。 sumisu san wa dare ni eiga no kippu o moraimashitaka B:チャンさんに もらいました。 chan san ni moraimashita
  6. 6. Exercise 3 C) Ask and answer what someone gave to another. • Asking what, you should use the question word なに(dare) = what with a particle を(o) .Subject(person) は another person に なに を Verb (past) か。 wa ni nani o ka ex. A:スミスさんは チャンさんに なにを あげましたか。 sumisu san wa chansan ni nani o agemashitaka B:えいがの きっぷを あげました。 eiga no kippu o agemashita
  7. 7. Exercise 4.You have to make up sentences or dialogues following the patterns of the examplesand based on the information in the illustration.What you learn here in this exercise is adding a time expression as an event or anoccasion in sentences, such as Christmas, Valentine s Day, and birthdays. • You should place a time expression right after the subject of the sentence with a particle に(ni) .Subject(person) は time expression に wa ni another person に Object を Verb (past) 。 ni o ex. :すずきさんは クリスマスに チャンさんに でんしじしょを  s u z u k i s a n wa kurisumasu ni c h a n s a n n i denshijisho o あげました。 agemashitaka :チャンさんは クリスマスに すずきさんに でんしじしょを c h a n s a n wa kurisumasu ni s u z u k i s a n n i denshijisho o もらいました。 moraimashitaka
  8. 8. Exercise 4 D) Ask and answer when someone gave something to another. • Asking when, you should use the question word いつ(itsu) = when without any particle.Subject(person) は いつ wa another person に Object を Verb (past) か。 ni o kaex. :すずきさんは いつ チャンさんに でんしじしょを あげましたか。 s u z u k i s a n wa itsu c h a n s a n ni d e n s h i j i s h o o agemashitakaPlease follow appropriate rules with question words nani and dare for the rest ofquestions in the exercise.
  9. 9. あげます・もらいます の れんしゅう(1) agemasu moraimasu no renshuu 例(れい/rei) たかはしさん ・ささきさんは たかはしさんに プレゼントを  ささきさん sasaki san wa takahashi san ni purezento o  あげます。 agemashu ・たかはしさんは ささきさんに プレゼントを takahashi san wa sasaki san ni purezento o  もらいます。 morai masuNote : the person who gives a hand is the giver ささきさん たかはしさん ささきさん たかはしさん たかはしさん たかはしさん たかはしさん たかはしさん ささきさん
  10. 10. あげます・もらいます の れんしゅう(2) agemasu moraimasu no renshuuYou have just come back from a trip. Look at the picture and tell what you will giveto the following people.Ex. : (わたしは)ちちに ウイスキーを あげます。 watashi wa chichi ni uisukii o agemasu (ルームメート) ruumu meito
  11. 11. あげます・もらいます の れんしゅう(3) agemasu moraimasu no renshuuLook at the picture and make sentences using もらいます.Ex. : (わたしは)かのじょに マフラーを もらいました。 watashi wa kanojo ni mafuraa o morai mashita (ビデオカメラ) bideo kamera
  12. 12. 「あげます」「もらいます」「くれます」の れんしゅう(4) agemasu moraimasu    kuremasu no renshuuDescribe who gave what to whom using あげます, もらいます, and くれます.Ex. : きょうこさんは ビルさんに セーターを あげました。 kyoko san wa biru san ni seetaa o age mashita Kyoko Mearii Biru Takeshi Ken Suu Naomi Robaato watashi