JBP-1 / Lesson 23 / Grammar note

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This is a grammar note for JBP-1 / Lesson 23 about 「〜ています」.

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JBP-1 / Lesson 23 / Grammar note

  1. 1. JBP-1 Lesson 23 ∼ています ∼te imasu 1
  2. 2. A verbal “te-form,” when followed by the helping verb “います”, means either of the following; Grammar Note of “∼ています” t e i m a s u 1.an action in progress. ! 2. a past event that is connected with the present. 2
  3. 3. Verbs Classifications The verbs we have learned so far can be roughly divided into 3 classifications based on their semantics. a ) verbs that describe continuous state ! b ) verbs that describe activities that last for some time. ! c ) verbs that describe changes that are more or less instantaneous 3
  4. 4. a ) verbs that describe continuous states We have not seen many verbs in this classification. So far we only have あります and います. The te-forms of these verbs are never a r i m a s u i m a s u used together with the helping verb います, so we will have i m a s u nothing to say about them in this note. テーブルのうえに ほんがあります。 t ē b u r u n o u e n i h o n g a a r i m a s u テーブルのうえに ほんがあっています。 t ē b u r u n o u e n i h o n g a a t t e i m a s u ぎんこうのまえに がくせいがいます。 g i n k o u n o m a e n i g a k u s e i g a i m a s u ぎんこうのまえに がくせいがいています。 g i n k o u n o m a e n i g a k u s e i g a i t e i m a s u ☓ ☓ There is a book on the table. There is a student in front of the bank. 4
  5. 5. b ) verbs that describe activities that last for some time. Many verbs belong to this classification. They include verbs such as のみます, たべます, and します. When the te-form of a verb in n o m i m a s u t a b e m a s u s h i m a s u this group is followed by the helping verb います, we have a i m a s u sentence describing an action in progress. すずきさんは いま べんきょうをしています。 s u z u k i s a n w a i m a b e n k y o u o s h i t e i m a s u チャンさんは えいごのほんをよんでいます。 c h a n s a n w a e i g o n o h o n o y o n d e i m a s u Mr. Suzuki is studying right now. Ms. Chan is reading a book in English. 5
  6. 6. You can also use a ∼ています sentence to describe what a person does by occupation. The first example below therefore has two interpretations: one, you are teaching English right at this moment; and two, you are an English language teacher (but are not necessarily in class right now). わたしは えいごをおしえています。 w a t a s h i w a e i g o o o s h i e t e i m a s u すずきさんは えいごの べんきょうをしています。 s u z u k i s a n w a e i g o n o b e n k y o u o s h i t e i m a s u I teach English. / I am teaching English (right now). Mr. Suzuki studies English. / Mr. Suzuki is studying English (right now). 6
  7. 7. c ) verbs that describe changes that are more or less instantaneous Verbs in this classification describe changes from one state to another. If you get married, or けっこんします, for example, your k e k k o n s h i m a s u status changes from being single to being married. With these verbs, ています indicates a past occurrence of a change which t e i m a s u has retained its significance until the present moment. In other words, ています describes the result of a change. t e i m a s u グリーンさんは けっこんしています。 g u r ī n s a n w a k e k k o n s h i t e i m a s u コンビニで えいがのきっぷを うっています。 k o n b i n i d e e i g a n o k i p p u o u t t e i m a s u Mr. Green is married. They sell movies tickets at convenience stores. 7
  8. 8. Here are some more examples of verbs that are commonly used in the ∼ています framework. t e i m a s u チャンさんは おかねを たくさんもっています。 c h a n s a n w a o k a n e o t a k u s a n m o t t e i m a s u Ms. Chan has a lot of money. もちます m o c h i m a s u もっています mo~tsu t e i m a s u ( to have ) すずきさんは チャンさんのでんわばんごうを しっています。 s u z u k i s a n w a c h a n s a n n o d e n w a b a n g o u o s h i t t e i m a s u Mr. Suzuki knows Chan’s telephone number. しります s h i r i m a s u しっています s h i t t e i m a s u ( to know ) かとうさんは ちょっと ふとっています。 k a t o u s a n w a c h o t t o f u t o t t e i m a s u Mr. Kato is a bit overweight. ふとります f u t o r i m a s u ふとっています f u t o t t e i m a s u ( to be overweight ) スミスさんは くろいコートを きています。 s u m i s u s a n w a k u r o i k ō t o o k i t e i m a s u Mr. Smith is wearing / wears a black overcoat. きます k i m a s u きています k i t e i m a s u ( to wear ) なかむらさんは しぶやに すんでいます。 n a k a m u r a s a n w a s h i b u y a n i s u n d e i m a s u Ms. Nakamura lives in Shibuya. すみます s u m i m a s u すんでいます s u n d e i m a s u ( to live ) わたしは ソニーに つとめています。 w a t a s h i w a s o n ī n i t s u t o m e t e i m a s u I’m employed by Sony. つとめます t s u t o m e m a s u つとめています t s u t o m e t e i m a s u ( to be employed ) 8
  9. 9. Note that verbs like いきます, きます and かえります belong to the classification C. Thus いっています and きています indicate the current states that result from prior movements, not movements that are currently in progress. You may want to be careful with what the following sentences mean. チャンさんは いま よこはまししゃに いっています。 c h a n s a n w a i m a y o k o h a m a s h i s h a n i i t t e i m a s u ともだちは うちに きています。 t o m o d a c h i w a u c h i n i k i t e i m a s u Ms. Chan has gone to / is in Yokohama branch office. My friend has come over to visit my house. Not : Ms. Chan is currently on the way to Yokohama branch office. Not : My friend is currently on the way to my place. スミスさんは アメリカに かえっています。 s u m i s u s a n w a a m e r i k a n i k a e t t e i m a s u Mr. Smith has returned to the U.S. Not : Mr. Smith is currently on the way back to the U.S. 9

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