Japanese Adjectives
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JBP-1, Lesson 12, Japanese Adjectives Grammar Note

JBP-1, Lesson 12, Japanese Adjectives Grammar Note

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Japanese Adjectives Japanese Adjectives Presentation Transcript

  • Lesson 12 Grammar Note
  • Japanese adjectives Just like English adjectives, Japanese adjectives give information about the noun or pronoun s definition, on the other hand, Japanese adjectives also function as predicates to a sentence (giving a property to the subject) - where the adjective takes the verb position of the sentence with です(desu) . adjectivenoun は です。 noun adjective. wa desu スミスさんの うち は おおきいです。Ex. Mr. Smith s house is big. In the above example sentence, おおきい(ookii) means just not big but is big . is sumisu san no uchi wa ookii desu
  • adjective noun+ They also function as noun modifiers - where the adjective is adjacent to the noun. Types of adjectives in Japanese Ex. おおきい うち+ ookii uchi = a big house However, there are two types of adjectives in Japanese : i- adjective and na- djectives . The and are their last syllables when they modify nouns. i-adjectives na-adjectives i na Ex. : i-adj. おおきい うち = a big house o o k i i uchi Ex. : na-adj. しずかな こうえん = a quiet park shizukana kouen
  • This first group is the i-adjectives, so called because they all end with an い i . When an i-adjective is placed in front of a noun, it modifies the noun directly, and when placed at the end of the sentence, its becomes a predicate with です. i-adjectives おおきい です To change an i-adjective into it s negative form, replace the final い i with くない ku nai as in the predicate, thus you can state as is not [i-adjective] . As Predicate: Present Affirmative As Modifier おおきいbig ookii desu ookii noun+ あたらしい です あたらしく ないですnew atarashii desu → As Predicate: Present Affirmative As Predicate: Present Negative X X atarashiku naidesu スミスさんの うちは おおきいです。 sumisu san no uchi wa ookii desu Ex. Mr. Smith s house is big. これは おおきい うちです。 kore wa ookii uchi desu This is a big house. Ex. スミスさんの うち は あたらしく ないです。 sumisu san no uchi wa atarashiku naidesu Mr. Smith s house is not new.
  • na-adjectives The second group, the na-adjectives, are followed by な na when used to modify nouns, and by です when used to predicate a sentence. However, when you don t have to modify nouns with them, you must remove な na just as predicates to a sentence. しずか です To change an na-adjective into it s negative form, simply replace です desu with ではありません dewa arimasen . As Predicate: Present Affirmative As Modifier しずかなquiet shizuka desu shizukana noun+ しずか です しずか ではありませんquiet shizuka desu → As Predicate: Present Affirmative As Predicate: Present Negative shizuka dewa arimasen この こうえんは しずかです。 kono kouen wa shizuka desu Ex. This park is quiet. これは しずかな こうえんです。 kore wa shizukana kouen desu This is a quiet park. X この こうえんは しずかなです。X※ ※ この こうえんは しずかではありません。 kono kouen wa shizuka dewa arimasen Ex. This park is not quiet. X
  • Additional Notes The negative form of i-adjective いいです (iidesu) becomes よくないです (yoku naidesu) because the original word for good in Japanese is よいです (yoi desu). For some historical reason, its negative form follows the original word instead. いい です よく ないですgood ii desu → As Predicate: Present Affirmative As Predicate: Present Negative X X yoku naidesu よい です yoi desu → We also have negative forms with modifying nouns for both i and na adjective. However, we do not discuss them in this lesson and we ll go over them later on the textbook. Therefore, we make negative sentences by changing predicate ending です (desu) into ではありません (dewa arimasen). これは おおきい うちです。 kore wa ookii uchi desu This is a big house. これは しずかな こうえんです。 kore wa shizukana kouen desu This is a quiet park. Ex. これは おおきい うち ではありません。 kore wa ookii uchi dewa arimasen This is not a big house. これは しずかな こうえん ではありません。 kore wa shizukana kouen dewa arimasen This is not a quiet park.
  • na-adjectives end with い i There are few na-adjectives which end with い i just like i-adjective. For example, ゆうめい (yuumei) that means famous ends with い i , but it s in the group of na-adjective. Here s how to make a distinction between the groups : famous ゆうめい です As Predicate: Present Affirmative As Modifier ゆうめいな yuumei desu yuumeina noun+ You have to focus the last two vowels of an adjective In the Japanese sound system, ei vowel combination becomes ええ ee in a normal speech speed, not as written as えい ei . Therefore any adjectives end with this ei combination are defined as na-adjectives. pretty きれい です きれいな kirei desu kireina noun+
  • Additional Adjectives benri desu べんりです fuben desu ふべんです convenient inconvenient urusai desu うるさいです shizuka desu しずかです noisy, loud quiet, serene oishii desu おいしいです mazui desu まずいです delicious tasteless kitanai desu きたないです kirei desu きれいです dirty clean, beautiful takai desu たかいです hikui desu ひくいです high, tall low, short nagai desu ながいです mijikai desu みじかいです long short omoi desu おもいです karui desu かるいです heary light kakkoii desu かっこいいです cool, groovy, hot
  • Japanese words for colors as adjective Color in English Predicate with です Modify nouns as i-adj. Modify nouns with の Noun as color name black くろ(い)です くろい くろ white しろ (い) です しろい しろ blue あお (い) です あおい あお (いろ) red あか (い) です あかい あか (いろ) yellow きいろです きいろい きいろの きいろ brown ちゃいろです ちゃいろい ちゃいろの ちゃいろ green みどりです みどり (いろ) の みどり (いろ) purple むらさきです むらさき (いろ) の むらさき (いろ) pink ピンクです ピンク (いろ) の ピンク (いろ) orange オレンジです オレンジ (いろ) の オレンジ (いろ) any other colors <color>です <color> (いろ) の <color> (いろ)